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George Peele’s David and Bethsabe

Catholic church and address specific practices and aspects of doctrine which encouraged superstition and exploited the laity. The reforms instituted by Luther in 1517 included the elimination of Catholic practices such as the worship of saints, recognition of the authority of the Pope and belief in purgatory. The sacraments were reduced from seven to two to include just baptism and the Eucharist. The elimination of the sacrament of confession for example, whereby individuals could receive penance and absolution for their sins from a priest, redefined the nature of the

in The genres of Renaissance tragedy

that faith was a matter of the heart rather than the mind and that it was a gift from God through revelation and conversion. Learning and knowledge in themselves were not enough, and mere church membership and ritual reception of the sacraments were also by themselves inadequate. Assurance of salvation in this Calvinist tradition rested only on the election by God of the repentant sinner. Christ alone could do this but a visible symbol of election could be found in participation in the sacrament of communion where God publicly affirmed His covenant with the chosen

in Clanship to crofters’ war
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The wages of sin

. The word ‘cleanness’ used in a religious context had two different groups of senses in Middle English, both abstract: the more general one of ‘freedom from sin’ and the more particular one of ‘chastity’. 1 Both senses were widely current. The sacrament of penance, which was so important in the practice of the faith in the later middle ages, made the former sense universally understood through the idea that the penitent is made clean of sin. The latter sense is the one which is found if one looks up ‘cleanness’ in treatises on morality such as handbooks for priests

in Language and imagination in the Gawain-poems
St James’, Bury St Edmunds, 1692–1720

They believed that in order to promote greater unity among all Protestants, the established Church should concentrate on the essential doctrines of Christian religion that united rather than those which divided. These essentials, which were necessary for salvation, could be found in the Scriptures, with individuals being left to decide for themselves the validity of doctrinal inessentials. Latitudinarians also believed that the Scriptures were accessible to everyone, no matter what their training. Sacerdotalism, the elevation of the sacraments of the Church beyond

in Witchcraft and Whigs

and stayed in Bruges, where they were seldom able to find priests to whom they could confess. They asked that a chaplain in a local house of Carmelites be able to serve as confessor, since he could understand the language of the Scottish merchants. Their request was granted: the Scots-speaking chaplain could hear confession of the Scots in Bruges, absolve them of sins, and administer the sacraments to

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560
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Council’s programme of reform to the local level, required parish priests to explain the sacraments and expound the Ten Commandments, the formula of confession, the formula used in baptism, the seven deadly sins, and the main points of the Creed. 12 By this time, materials for simple catechetical preaching of this sort were becoming quite widely available to parish priests; in the first half of the thirteenth

in Friars’ Tales

. For example, the Tractarian emphasis on the spiritual authority of the priest, and the sacraments he performed, was physically expressed through large chancels and ornate baptisteries. The correct chancel, as recommended by the CCS, should be large (about one third of the length of the nave), separated from the nave by a step on the floor and a chancel arch above, and it should be decorated with a richness (in stained glass

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival

in the work of catechising, discipline and administering the sacraments. The ‘association movement’ was one solution to ‘a decade of incipient religious plurality’.11 And while essentially reactionary, they also represented ‘a genuine growing together [of ministers] after a time of sectarian strife’.12 In fact, the movement’s history has been almost entirely linked to one man: Richard Baxter. The famous Kidderminster pastor has long been seen as the ‘driving force’ and ‘inspiration’ behind the association movement. His Worcestershire association was the first to

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66

remercier, il pleura, ravi, courbé sous le grand signe de croix dont le couvrait le moine. 22 Durtal’s confession dramatises many of the aspects of sin depicted by both English and French Catholic writers. The search for order, the lifting of the burdens of conscience and the tension between the attractions of sin and the divine law are resolved in a merciful gesture circumscribed by a sacrament of the Church. For these poets the ministry of the priest is a kind of bridge between their buffered, autonomous individuality and the religious porosity

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
Towards a geocultural poetics

conventional baptism of water can, by earnestly and truly wanting to be baptised, gain the benefits of the sacrament … Longing and will may serve where form and ritual are impossible’ (1991: 55). Although, as Jaskoski notes, this element of doctrine is not a pivot, but rather a departure point for the collection, the first section contains ten poems that directly concern religion. 9 Of these the most prominent is ‘The Sacraments’, a poem of seven sections beginning with a list of sacraments – ‘ Baptism, Communion, Confirmation,/Matrimony, Penance, Holy Orders, Extreme

in Louise Erdrich