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What a thought experiment about race-colour change makes us see
Margaret P. Battin

’s ontological account of race involves racial scepticism, the view that races do not (really) exist, or any of the various forms of racial constructionism, views that hold in various ways that race-identity is socially ascribed and acknowledged within a social system, or population naturalism, the view that race is a biological product of partial reproductive isolation, resulting in differing frequencies in human population groups of a variety of heritable traits – of which skin colour is only one.7 Whether race is a fiction, a social construction, or a biological category

in From reason to practice in bioethics
Childhood and rurality in film
Owain Jones

discourses of rurality and childhood it carries? Social construction is practised through discourses, which ‘structure both our sense of reality and our notion of our own identity’ (Mills, 1997 : 15). They not only carry meanings and values through cultures, they are bound up in the creation and maintenance of meaning and values in close relation to ideology and power. This is

in Cinematic countrysides
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Exploring sites of the Canadian ecoGothic
Alanna F. Bondar

knowledge that she was not pregnant, only tested; ‘the blood of her moons … had collected inside her until finally it rose up into her throat’ (72). Masked by a fear-inducing religion that privileges the afterlife and denigrates earth-bound existence, the surreptitious stripping of women’s personal choices effectively destroys lives – foetal and female. By destabilizing the social construction of these

in Ecogothic
discourse, argumentation and ritual
Lee Jarvis and Tim Legrand

render it meaningful. Steffano Guzzini’s ( 2000 , 174) summary, in which he argues that ‘constructivism is epistemologically about the social construction of knowledge and ontologically about the (social) construction of the social world’, remains a useful one in its foregrounding the need to take seriously the ways in which reality and our ideas about reality are made, and made meaningful. This, as Guzzini ( 2000 , 174) notes, involves working with an intersubjective analytical framework, in that these meaning-making practices are to be found in the interactions of

in Banning them, securing us?
Allison Cavanagh and Alex Dennis

former are ‘less’ socially constructed than the latter – in which case one should have criteria for distinguishing between the two. Of course, it is uncharitable to ask such questions. The invocation of ‘social construction’ does not represent adherence to a theoretical position or show that a category or criterion has been applied to a set of social phenomena. Instead, it allows the writer to carry on with business as usual: because (in 1998 at least) ‘social construction’ did not require definition, it could be used to facilitate evidence-free assertions. A

in Human agents and social structures
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Conducting (self) interviews at sea for a surfer’s view of surfing
Lyndsey Stoodley

, 2006 : 480). Water represents a stark departure from researching the land. No longer fixed, solid and stable, water is endlessly mobile, unstable and uncertain. In spite of and because of this, a number of scholars have turned to the sea to utilise its ‘potential to reorient our perspectives in multiple ways’ (Lambert, Martins and Ogborn, 2006 : 488) and address the evident bias towards the land. The beginnings of such a turn are largely attributed to Steinberg's 2001 work The Social Construction of the Ocean , in which he states that the ‘ocean is not

in Mundane Methods
Brunias’s ‘ladies’ of ambiguous race
Mia L. Bagneris

viewer. Without the telltale blush or stark contrast of black and white – only a confounding sea of diverse shades along the spectrum of brown – the women in Brunias’s paintings insistently refuse to make their whiteness – or its lack  – clearly legible. Physical embodiments of an epistemological conundrum, ambiguously raced bodies like these threaten to upend the whole scheme of race, first by exposing racial categories as social constructions rather than scientific facts, and then by revealing the unstable ground upon which these powerfully real fictions are

in Colouring the Caribbean
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Peter William Evans

innocence and guilt. A remark made by the policeman to the priest in Odd Man Out could serve as an epigraph for all Reed’s films: ‘In my profession, Father, there is neither good nor bad. There is only innocence and guilt. That’s all.’ Though Reed is concerned to show the processes of the social construction of the self, the destructive forces of nature are also acknowledged. Many characters are caught in the grip of

in Carol Reed
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Nanna Mik-Meyer

a particular emphasis on agency. Secondly, soft power is a well-known and widely used concept within international relations; however, the concept has received little attention outside this research field, which makes it a less loaded concept, as it lacks the many preconceptions and connotations of other similar concepts of power, such as three-dimensional (3-D) power as investigated by Lukes (2005) and four-dimensional (4-D) discursive power as investigated by Foucault (1983). Soft power thus concerns the shaping of both epistemic perceptions (3-D) and social

in The power of citizens and professionals in welfare encounters
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The decline of the eugenics empire
Chloe Campbell

of its members. 5 In 1946 a further article on race appeared in the EAMJ , authored by O’Brien of the Race Relations Institute. This article was significant for its attack on scientific racism and race as an immutable, biologically defined category. O’Brien described race as a recent scientific and social construction , and asserted that

in Race and empire