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Considering the place of history and heritage in early twentieth-century Australia and Canada alongside that of New Zealand, a number of things become clear. First is the ubiquity of colonial concern with ‘history making’, and in particular the perceived didactic power of the past in the preservation and maintenance of ‘values’ – values that were typically construed within

in History, heritage, and colonialism
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officer corps of all of the Irish amateur forces was dominated by Protestants. This does not mean that it was an exclusively Protestant venture, as there were more Catholics in the militia officer corps than has previously been appreciated, particularly in regiments based in the west of Ireland. At least initially, the landed classes dominated the militia officer corps. By the early twentieth century, their numbers were in sharp decline, and this reflects the decline of the landed classes in Irish society as a whole.1 As a result, the militia came to rely on officers

in The Irish amateur military tradition in the British Army, 1854–1992
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virtually off the map. And all the time, working in the background, women like Margaret Hodgson and Helen Hogg, and the many wives and daughters whose contributions as correspondents and assistants have gone unrecorded, provided much of the hidden labour that made many of these journeys possible. It would not be until the last quarter of the twentieth century that they were able to undertake them in

in Empire of scholars
Governing science in the Royal Navy

astronomer George Ellery Hale told President Woodrow Wilson that ‘war should mean research’.2 In his history of science in the twentieth century, Jon Agar notes that ‘Historians agree that the First World War accelerated a trend towards increased organisation in the modern world’ – including the ‘institutionalisation of planned invention’.3 This was a major transformation that science underwent in the twentieth century, but the path was rarely straightforward. As Bruno Latour reminds us, there was nothing ‘inevitable’ about how invention and research were institutionalised

in Scientific governance in Britain, 1914–79

8 Towards ‘work–life balance’ F rom the mid-nineteenth century it became common to think of time as being divided between work and leisure. To do this, however, was to see the world through the eyes of men. Women, whether or not they were in paid employment, had very little sense of time being so neatly divided into work and leisure. Work provided the dominant motif of their lives, and there was no time on the clock when it began or ended. Life was task-oriented, and there were always tasks to be done. In the twentieth century there were fundamental changes in

in Time, work and leisure
Population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’, 1912–22

Population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’ v 13 v From imperial dreams to the refugee problem: population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’, 1912–22 Emilia Salvanou Introduction The twentieth century came to be known as the century of the refugee, with the Great War marking the beginning of decades of forced human mobility.1 Nevertheless, especially as far as the Balkans are concerned, population mobility had started much earlier. By the nineteenth century, with the prospect of a diffusing discourse of nationalism and an Ottoman Empire that

in Europe on the move
The changing churchyard landscape

3981 Churchyard and cemetery:Layout 1 3/7/13 08:47 Page 316 10 ‘Unobservable or inconspicuous to the casual visitor’?:1 the changing churchyard landscape This chapter considers the way in which the landscape of the churchyard changed over the course of the twentieth century and addresses some contentions that have been central to the notion of a new and ‘modern’ attitude towards disposal of the dead. The introduction and growing popularity of cremation has been taken as evidence of societal disengagement with mortality. A strong contrast can be drawn

in Churchyard and cemetery
John Holt & Co. (Liverpool) Ltd as a contemporary free-standing company, 1945–2006

century, but were thought to have declined after 1950. Although some are still in existence, most scholars, including Mira Wilkins, who first coined the term, consider it a rare and unimportant form of foreign direct investment for the late twentieth century or the early 2000s. 12 The main focus of the following section is to explain the most recent corporate history and the logic behind adopting this

in The empire in one city?
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‘Thoroughly untidy’: changing burial culture, 1850–2007

temptation to use the World Wars as crisis points. The decision not to take this approach here appears alarming, particularly given both the number of war memorials that were erected in churchyards throughout the region in the 1920s and 1930s, and the substantial scholarship attached to this subject alone. However, this text has erred on the side of describing rather than ascribing trends, and in doing so finds the chronology of change problematic. In particular, the notion that at some juncture between the nineteenth and twentieth century there is an advent of ‘modernity

in Churchyard and cemetery
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Conclusion Female sexuality in Northern Ireland during the twentieth century was regulated in a variety of formal and informal ways. The techniques employed and the attitudes towards female sexuality were not only driven by gender and class, but influenced by the wider political, social and religious situation in Northern Ireland. All sections of the community in Northern Ireland based much of their identity upon the maintenance of high moral standards, particularly with regard to female behaviour. While Northern Ireland had a majority Protestant government

in Regulating sexuality