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Katja Biedenkopf and Alexander Mattelaer

causal interconnection between individual policy decisions in contrast to the coincidental but causally unconnected adoption of similar policies. Policy decisions in different countries can be connected through conceptually different causal mechanisms, generally differentiated as emulation, learning, and competition (Dolowitz and Marsh 2000 ; Simmons and Elkins 2004 ; Marsh and Sharman 2009 ; Gilardi 2012 ). The analytical lens of interdependent policy decisions and mutual influence among foreign policy-makers can add a useful angle to

in Foreign policy as public policy?
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The seductions of Terror amid the tyranny of the human

. Butler 1999: 5–6). True, Baudrillard did write a vicious critique of Foucault’s analytic of power, titled suitably Forget Foucault (1987). However the apparent conflicts between them disguise a more mutual concern with issues precisely of the intersections of power, life, and strategy. The early works of Baudrillard developed indeed a conception of the strategy of power that is very close to that which we have identified with Foucault. For Baudrillard, as for Foucault, what differentiates the strategies of liberal regimes of power from other forms is their assumption

in The biopolitics of the war on terror

question considered political is necessarily the product of a political judgement. Bourdieu differentiates three modes of production of opinion (Bourdieu 1984, 417-18). The first depends on class ethos, which enables the opinion provider to formulate coherent, common-sense answers that follow the logic of everyday existence. Political principles, 'slant' or logos provide the grounding for the second mode of production of political opinion. Both first and second modes are amenable to logical control and 24 Democracy, social resources and political power in the European

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Weak empire to weak nation-state around Nagorno-Karabakh

conflicting interests of its citizen in a non-violent way on a day-to-day basis. The USSR performed poorly on the level of official procedures and delegated a good part of those functions to informal institutions; the legitimate monopoly of violence, on the other hand, was functional and undisputed. The agony into which the Soviet state was sliding was a combination of lacking official institutions to deal with publicly ethnicised conflict in a sovereign and calm manner and at the same time (from ignorance, arrogance or outright panic on the part of the central decision makers

in Potentials of disorder

emerging differentiation in the manner in which non-EU Europe was to be treated. The first initiative built on, but effectively superseded, the1988 EC–CMEA Declaration. Between September 1988 and October 1990 the Community concluded Trade and Cooperation Agreements (TCAs) with the six East European members of CMEA as well as with the Soviet Union. In parallel, initiatives were pursued to extend

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security

dependent sovereign states. Limited independence has been a constant feature of many small states over time, to be sure. To identify states as such, and in particular small states, the standard of a “functionally independent”28 unitary actor in the system is applied here. Recognizing the near impossibility of small states being truly independent in the narrowest sense of the word, statehood will be assumed here if a small state has sufficient independence to function as its own unit in the states system. Autonomy has considerable overlap with independence, so much so that

in Small states in world politics
How state preferences influence campaign forms

136 5 Strategic considerations, tough choices: how state preferences influence campaign forms T ransnational advocacy campaigns come in a variety of forms and produce a variety of results. The purpose of this chapter is to enumerate some of the reasons why, drawing on the case studies of the preceding chapters to deduce some patterns or trends across issue areas in China. Given the prevalence of state preferences in the results and functional forms of campaigns explored, it falls upon this chapter to also examine the character and origins of those preferences

in The advocacy trap

‘concentration of power’). He also pointed to the equally threatening tendency of ‘syndicalism’ or trade unionism, described as ‘a contrivance by means of which society is disposed for a perpetual civil war in which the parties are the organised self-interest of functional minorities’ (Oakeshott 1991: 401). The effect of syndicalism would mean that ‘the community as a whole pays the bill in monopoly prices and disorder’. Though Oakeshott argued that collectivism and syndicalism were antithetical, the first requiring a strong state and the second a weak state, Conservative

in The Conservative Party and the nation
Toward a dialogue with foreign policy analysis
Sebastian Harnisch

more important, resulting in the establishment of new concepts, such as socialization. The variations in uncertainty and sociality of learning processes are summarized in table 9.1 . The columns capture the main protagonists and their respective approaches. These depictions of course are highly aggregated and should be further differentiated when used in empirical analysis as some of the concepts do overlap. Table 9.1 Typology of selected learning approaches in PP: uncertainty and sociality

in Foreign policy as public policy?
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logic of differentiation, heterogeneity and flux not only gives impetus to new struggles of emancipation, but, perversely, also defines a new field of power and domination which these struggles must contend with. We can say, broadly, that postmodern power operates increasingly through localised and decentred points, is productive rather than purely repressive and prohibitive, and constitutes a system of free-floating control and surveillance, working in conjunction with the ‘old’ system of prohibition and law. Moreover, it is a system of power which is made possible

in Unstable universalities