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The postwar child in films
Philip Gillett

enforced mingling of the classes (including the appearance of middle-class patients in public assistance institutions after air raids) led to a greater awareness of social inequalities and the inadequacies of welfare provision. 2 The response was a shift to centrally financed services which included school dinners (provided for one in thirty children in 1940, but one in three by 1945), free school milk, National dried milk for babies

in The British working class in postwar film
Democratic discourse and the Chartist challenge
Peter Gurney

popular support, Whig politicians such as T. B. Macaulay and Lord Brougham carefully distinguished between calls for ‘a democracy’ – meaning a completely transformed political system that represented a complete break with the past and which they reviled as much as any Tory – and necessary appeals to ‘the democracy’, or the rising social and economic middle, whose interests deserved to be urgently represented.2 The odium clung, however, and the eminently respectable radical George Jacob Holyoake could observe in the mid-1860s that ‘in the eyes of the governing class

in Wanting and having
Peter Barry

enduring’. Maurice regarded literature as the particular property of the middle class and the expression of their values. For him the middle class represents the essence of Englishness (the aristocracy are part of an international elite, and the poor need to give all their attention to ensuring mere survival) so middle-class education should be specifically English, and therefore should centre on English literature. Maurice was well aware of the political dimension of all this. People so educated would feel that they belonged to England, that they had a country

in Beginning theory (fourth edition)
Christy Kulz

knowledges constitute the other as … being unhappy, as lacking the qualities or attributes required for a happier state of existence’ (2010: 125). Moving towards this more middle-class position requires ‘acquiring good habits’ and an ‘affective disposition’ where ‘you learn to be affected in the right way by the right things’ (2010: 129). Urbanderry natives old and new can be structured into dominant value systems while broader structural issues are ignored, yet simultaneously drawn upon to make value judgements. Dreamfields’ mission functions as a gift to urban children

in Factories for learning
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Manliness and the home
Joanne Begiato

“home” to do much for a man.’ He concluded, ‘the man who has “home” in his heart, will, by God’s blessing turn out well’.1 In 1857 the same magazine contained a poem titled ‘Come Back as Soon as You Can’, illustrated by a top-hatted man bidding farewell to his daughter at the garden gate. The middle-class poet announces that his daughter always says goodbye to him by imploring, ‘As soon as you can, come home.’ He advises the businessman to ‘get home’, since that is where ‘a man and a father be’.2 As with working-class men throughout this book, they were instructed on

in Manliness in Britain, 1760–1900
Paul Kelemen

early 1920s, about two million Jews had migrated to the United States and the Jewish population in Britain increased from about 60,000 to 300,000, changing the size and character of Anglo-Jewry. ‘It converted’, Schneier Levenberg, the leading intellectual of Poale Zion in Britain, later noted, ‘what was by then an increasingly middle class and religiously latitudinarian community, acculturated to British habits and ideals, into one composed predominantly of proletarian, Yiddish speaking immigrants, mainly Orthodox in religion but with pockets of radical, even

in The British left and Zionism
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J.W.M. Hichberger

The Crimean war, as we have seen, was used as evidence of the aristocracy’s ‘unfitness’ to rule the army. The middle classes increasingly claimed the right to a voice in its administration, and the system of purchase once more came under attack. It was the ranks which were the chief focus of middle-class agitation. The daily life of the common soldier was examined in a

in Images of the army
class and the politics of impulse in Time Without Pity (1957), The Gypsy and the Gentleman (1957), Blind Date (1959) and The Criminal (1960)
Colin Gardner

instead focused exclusively on the foibles of the bourgeoisie through the representation of hermetic upper- and middle-class milieux. Thus, apart from secondary, usually devious characters like Frank Clements’s partner-in-crime, Harry, or Sally’s fiancé Bailey in The Sleeping Tiger , Losey’s English working class are, initially at least, notable largely for their absence. This neglect seems odd coming from the director of the

in Joseph Losey
David Thackeray

Trafalgar Square since the pro-Boer demonstration at the time of the South African war’.3 But if the Progressives had won this fight, they did not win the battle at the polling booth. In 1907 the Unionist-linked Municipal Reform Party took control of local government in the metropolis for the first time. Charles Masterman, a Liberal politician, claimed that the Municipal Reformers’ breakthrough had resulted from their ability to harness class interests. According to Masterman, the suburban middle classes swarmed to the polls ‘in feverish hordes…to vote against a truculent

in Conservatism for the democratic age
Between respectable and risqué satire in 1848
Jo Briggs

informed both the journal’s contents and the way they were read. For Punch respectability was a desire then, rather than a given, and its contributors’ assertions of decorum should not be taken at face value. In 1848, against the backdrop of the fallout from the 10 April Chartist demonstration and ongoing arrests and plotting over the summer, Punch’s desire for respectable humour was threatened. This can be seen most clearly in the publication’s satires at the expense of the middle-class special constables who volunteered to assist to keep the peace on the day of the

in Novelty fair