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From import-substitution industrialization to economic liberalization

the policies adopted to make India self-sufficient benefited businessmen and industrialists while the licensing and quota system led to corruption often benefiting senior civil servants and politicians. But the reforms introduced since the early 1990s have not benefited the poor either. An India Today-ORG-MARG ‘mood of the nation’ poll conducted between 24 July 2003 and 6 August 2003 revealed that over 52 per cent of the 117 118 India in a globalized world respondents feel that reforms have only benefited the rich and not the middle class or the poor (India

in India in a globalized world
Andrew Williams

call ‘realism’ was clearly there, an awareness of the exigencies of power, the need for national self-reliance in matters of security, and a need to number ‘war and invasion a possibility to be reckoned among everyday perils’. The question was how these different trends could be managed. Brailsford could personally put no hope in alliances to keep the peace, neither could Britain imagine itself immune from European wars, either by acting as ‘balancer’ or by remaining aloof.11 As a socialist he saw the forces of class domination, financial speculation and the needs of

in Failed imagination?
Politics and law

continuities presented in the previous chapter: the understanding of linguistic conventions that regulated the use of political friendship by early Humanist thinkers requires reconstruction of the genealogical trails of the term in late medieval diplomatic sources and their transmission to the early modern language of politics. The Christian Latin language of ‘love-diplomacy’ and its vernacularisation The amicitia that underlies the tradition of ‘amity’ seems to be a key term in the diplomatic vocabulary of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. However, as has been argued

in Friendship among nations

billion with which to purchase 38 helicopters, 35 landing vehicles, 25 auxiliary class ships and vehicles, 16 patrol ships, 15 guided assault boats, 14 frigates, 12 corvettes, 9 submarines, 4 anti-mine ships, 4 mine sweepers, and 1 communications ship. The air force, allotted the sum of 65 billion dollars, will acquire 640 fighter jets, 442 air defense weapons systems, 160 training aircraft, 79 operations planes, 68 transportation planes, and 25 helicopters. 32 The vast amounts Greece and Turkey plan to spend on arms mean that they are in effect

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
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36 to 71 years), Latin America (from 56 to 71 years), and the Middle East and North Africa (from 47 to 69).6 Sub-Saharan Africa saw an increase of 10 years until the 1990s when the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic began to undercut some of these gains, but it has since shown steady improvement with life expectancy reaching 58 in 2013.7 Significant regional and national differences still persist, but the life expectancy gap between rich and poor is narrowing in nearly all parts of the world, with the notable exception of Africa, which continues to lag noticeably

in African security in the twenty-first century

were entwined with his concern for Britain’s standing in the eyes of the Americans. He told his Cabinet on 17 July 1966 that a ‘complete withdrawal of forces from one of the three main theatres – Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East – would be contrary to the commitments we had indicated, when discussing the results of the Defence Review with our allies, that we would continue to discharge’. A large withdrawal ‘from any

in A ‘special relationship’?
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The drift from representation towards solidarity

steps linking trends of increasing insiderism, professional recruitment and influence strategies, and a decline in member participation. This second case develops, but also confirms, the overall importance of balancing mobilization and policy styles. Origins The FSB was formed in 1974, as the National Federation of the Self-Employed (NFSE) and had its roots in what King and Nugent (1979) described as the mobilization of the British middle classes in the 1970s against the emerging social and economic partnerships

in Groups, representation and democracy

. Hence, consecutive Indian governments have opted to combine general growth policies with targeted development strategies. A comparative analysis of the Five Year Plans32 reflects governments’ shifting take on the links between development, conflict, and conflict resolution and management. The early Plans were in keeping with the modernisation and technology transfer strategies that were popular in development strategies at the time and placed most emphasis on developing infrastructure and industry.33 The ‘Welfare of Backward Classes’ was only dealt with in Chapter 37

in Cultures of governance and peace
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A failed state on NATO’s frontline

: Transnational Institute, 2013, p. 186. 167 Aftermath 167 1 38 Matuszak, The Oligarchic Democracy, pp. 54, 107. 139 Plank, ‘Ukraine: land grabs in the black earth’, p. 186; Matuszak, The Oligarchic Democracy, p. 112. 140 Elizabeth Fraser, The Corporate Takeover of Ukrainian Agriculture [with Frédéric Mousseau] (Country Fact Sheet, December). Oakland: The Oakland Institute, 2014, pp. 3, 5. 141 Olha Holoyda, ‘Ukrainian oligarchs and the “family”, a new generation of czars:  or hope for the middle class?’ Scholar Research Brief. Washington, DC: IREX, 2013, p. 4. 142 German

in Flight MH17, Ukraine and the new Cold War
Philosophy, politics and foreign policy in America’s ‘second modernity’

important relationship to exceptionalism than this stark opposition allows. In fact, the rise of a distinctively ‘American realism’ was part of a wider exceptionalist moment 98 98 American foreign policy in the middle of the twentieth century, a moment that was concerned with both the exceptionality of the United States as a form of political order and the implications of this specific kind of exceptionality for its foreign relations. If liberal democracy was to have a future both at home and abroad in the post-​war world, America would require political knowledge

in American foreign policy