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Does Europeanisation require a geopolitical choice?

Sweden and Poland, the initiators of the EaP. In the case of the Swedish EU Presidency, Belarus is mentioned within the context of EU foreign relations aimed at increasing the level of EU–EaP relations and supporting ‘these countries’ integration with the EU in important areas such as trade, migration and legislation’ (Swedish EU Presidency, 2009). The Polish EU Presidency Programme (2011) affirms that it would seek to encourage Belarus to cooperate with the West, provided that the country observes principles of human rights and democracy. The latter wording includes

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood

: The Challenge of Mass Incarceration (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008). 26 For recent elaborations on Woodward’s pioneering work on these topics, see S. Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2003); E. L. Ayers, The Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). 27 These are criticisms articulated, ironically, by former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, who served presidents George  W.  Bush and Barack

in American foreign policy

and the Ukraine and has started to affect the way Turkey handles its Kurdish problem. The Union’s special strength is its broad spectrum of instruments, MUP_Hume_Peacemaking.indd 116 11/10/2013 15:25 Europe’s role in world peace 117 ranging from international development cooperation (the Union and its member states are responsible for well over half of all civil development aid), trade policy, diplomacy, political dialogue, migration policy, economic leverage, and the whole range of civilian and military instruments of crisis management, which are mutually

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
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The politics of Europe in the UK and Ireland

‘renationalise’ existing common policies, supported the extension of QMV and stronger powers for the European Parliament, and proposed that the Commission President be elected by an electoral college of national and European parliamentarians (Department of the Taoiseach 2003: 14). Furthermore, despite significant reservations about the direction of political integration, Ireland continued to support the cause of further enlargement, ‘opted in’ to many areas of Schengen legislation relating to asylum and irregular migration, and approved the participation of Irish troops in

in Managing Europe from home
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East Timorese” has not worked so far’ (Saldhana 1994: 370). One consequence of the easing, in 1989, of travel restrictions between East Timor and the rest of Indonesia was the emergence of both planned and spontaneous transmigration. After 1989 Jakarta encouraged migration of mainly Muslim Indonesians into urban and rural East Timor as part of its endeavour to remould the territory politically and economically. This resulted in resentment and conflict, and reduced opportunities for both rural and urban Timorese. Land rendered idle by the

in Human rights and the borders of suffering

such as East Asia, Latin America, orthodox Europe, South Asia and even Africa. Furthermore, millions of people have migrated and continue to migrate from the developing world to the west. Migration from the Indian subcontinent is discussed in Chapter 7, although the focus is not on migration to the west but on the dispersal of Indians on a global scale.This chapter argues that the adoption of a new constitution for independent India was indeed an attempt to transform India into a liberal democracy. However, the experience of the last fifty or so years has shown that

in India in a globalized world

manifestation of a set of historical processes. These include the pre-historic and historic migration of people; the global spread of the major world religions; the impact of the great empires; the influence of powerful western nation-states and modern nationalism, including the outward expansion of Europe from the sixteenth century; the transnational flows of capital and of ‘big’ ideas (pertaining to science, liberalism, socialism, feminism, etc.); and of course, the hegemony of English as a truly ‘global language’. Technological developments include the laying of the trans

in India in a globalized world

Russian and international organisations about what they saw as a de facto forcible return of refugees to Chechnya, where insufficient appropriate housing was made available to the returnees, the last refugee tent camp in Ingushetia was closed down in June 2004.89 Although this event was marked with an official ceremony and used as further proof that ‘peace and rule of law are returning to Chechnya’,90 migration officials estimated that in the summer of 2004 about 37,000 Chechen refugees remained in Ingushetia alone.91 At the beginning of the second Chechen conflict the

in Securitising Russia
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context of Africa. These include: the desire to limit migration to Europe; concerns about the spread of instability into geographical areas of more importance; and fears about ways in which international terrorism might be nurtured in failing states. As Labour MP John Austin puts it: I think there is a general consensus that failing states lead to instability, whether it’s because of the Islamic threat, or a terrorist thing, or instability is bad for business. And it causes refugees as well: I think there is a recognition now that if you allow states to fail and if you

in Britain and Africa under Blair
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, temporary exhibitions such as ‘ Zuwanderungsland Deutschland ’ and ‘ Mythen der Nationen ’ offer detailed treatments of migration and myths. Notwithstanding the use of slightly ambiguous terminology (Sutherland 2007 , 39), the first exhibition questions the long-standing, official West German trope that Germany is not a country of immigration by tracing successive waves and types of immigra tion back to 1500. The second

in Soldered states