Another significant feature of African conflict is the increasing subregionalization of conflict, whereby domestic conflicts rarely remain so
and thus spread from one country to the next, creating endemic zones
of conflict. Factors such as transnational ethnicity, a common historical
or cultural heritage, traditional migration patterns, and linked socioeconomic development help facilitate the spread of domestic conflict
across international borders. The Mano River Basin of West Africa, the
Great Lakes region of Central Africa and Darfur’s tri
since 1999 the Royal Jordanian airforce – collaborate is their airforces’ intentions to establish a radar network to pinpoint and identify migration routes of predatory birds in the autumn and spring, to minimize the chances of aircraft–birds collision. Altogether, some ninety Turkish F-16 pilots have already received training in relation to bird–plane collisions and related Israeli safety regulations. (In 1995 an Israeli F-15 crashed, its two pilots killed, following a collision with a bird. During the last twenty-five years 170 European and Israeli military aircraft
Does Europeanisation require a geopolitical choice?
Sweden and Poland, the initiators of the EaP. In the case of the Swedish EU
Presidency, Belarus is mentioned within the context of EU foreign relations
aimed at increasing the level of EU–EaP relations and supporting ‘these
countries’ integration with the EU in important areas such as trade, migration and legislation’ (Swedish EU Presidency, 2009). The Polish EU Presidency Programme (2011) affirms that it would seek to encourage Belarus
to cooperate with the West, provided that the country observes principles
of human rights and democracy. The latter wording includes
: The Challenge of Mass Incarceration (New York: Cambridge University
26 For recent elaborations on Woodward’s pioneering work on these topics, see
S. Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South
from Slavery to the Great Migration (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press,
2003); E. L. Ayers, The Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
27 These are criticisms articulated, ironically, by former Secretary of Defense
Robert Gates, who served presidents George W. Bush and Barack
and the Ukraine and has started to affect the way Turkey
handles its Kurdish problem.
The Union’s special strength is its broad spectrum of instruments,
Europe’s role in world peace
ranging from international development cooperation (the Union and
its member states are responsible for well over half of all civil development aid), trade policy, diplomacy, political dialogue, migration policy,
economic leverage, and the whole range of civilian and military instruments of crisis management, which are mutually
‘renationalise’ existing common policies, supported the extension of QMV and stronger powers for the European Parliament, and proposed that the Commission President be elected by an electoral college of national and European parliamentarians (Department of the Taoiseach 2003: 14). Furthermore, despite significant reservations about the direction of political integration, Ireland continued to support the cause of further enlargement, ‘opted in’ to many areas of Schengen legislation relating to asylum and irregular migration, and approved the participation of Irish troops in
. 1 – 27 ; M. Ash and A. Söllner (eds), Forced Migration and Scientific Change: Émigré German-Speaking Scientists and Scholars after 1933 ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 1996 ); U. Greenberg , The Weimar Century: German Émigrés and the Ideological Foundations of the Cold War ( Princeton : Princeton University Press , 2014 ).
11 On the legacy of the so-called Munich analogy and the problem of uncertainty in foreign policy decision-making, see F. V. Kratochwil , International Order and Foreign Policy: A Theoretical Sketch of Post
East Timorese” has not worked so far’ (Saldhana 1994: 370).
One consequence of the easing, in 1989, of travel restrictions between East Timor and the rest of Indonesia was the emergence of both planned and spontaneous transmigration. After 1989 Jakarta encouraged migration of mainly Muslim Indonesians into urban and rural East Timor as part of its endeavour to remould the territory politically and economically. This resulted in resentment and conflict, and reduced opportunities for both rural and urban Timorese. Land rendered idle by the
as East Asia, Latin America, orthodox Europe, South Asia and even Africa.
Furthermore, millions of people have migrated and continue to migrate from the
developing world to the west. Migration from the Indian subcontinent is
discussed in Chapter 7, although the focus is not on migration to the west but
on the dispersal of Indians on a global scale.This chapter argues that the adoption
of a new constitution for independent India was indeed an attempt to transform
India into a liberal democracy.
However, the experience of the last fifty or so years has shown that
manifestation of a set of historical processes. These include the pre-historic and
historic migration of people; the global spread of the major world religions; the
impact of the great empires; the influence of powerful western nation-states and
modern nationalism, including the outward expansion of Europe from the
sixteenth century; the transnational flows of capital and of ‘big’ ideas (pertaining
to science, liberalism, socialism, feminism, etc.); and of course, the hegemony of
English as a truly ‘global language’. Technological developments include the
laying of the trans