Abstract only
Leslie C. Green

pregnant women, children under fifteen and the immunity of hospitals and their personnel. Although these provisions are to operate without any adverse distinction based on race, nationality, religion or political opinion, the Convention does not protect those definitely suspected of or engaged in activities prejudicial to the security of the state, nor, in occupied territory, those detained as spies or saboteurs

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Christopher T. Marsden

shortly thereafter, in September 2013. After its trashing by Parliament, Council and BEREC as both a power grab for the Commission and a political obituary for outgoing Commissioner Kroes, all that remained by the end of 2014 was mobile roaming and net neutrality. All other issues were parked until the 2016 Telecom Single Market proposal, which was in Regulatory Fitness and Performance Programme (REFIT) evaluation until

in Network neutrality
Richard Parrish

pronounced, case law precedents are thin. The third pressure is political. Although the Commission has been fairly successful in shielding itself from close member state control, it does not operate in an environment immune from the wider political context. The EU’s institutional agenda is very open and affords actors the opportunity to exploit a multiplicity of venues in order to influence policy. As such, once an item reaches the institutional agenda a range of actors can become involved in the policy debate. In the case of sport, not all have accepted the definition of

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Christopher T. Marsden

–12 This section explores European legislative and regulatory responses to net neutrality in more detail. US net neutrality reforms were to be followed slowly in Europe, in reform of its ‘Telecoms Package’ completed in 2009 and implemented from 2011. 43 This difference led many political scientists to investigate the dynamics of the debate in both the US and Europe. 44 European law upheld transparency on

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
The prognosis
Sara De Vido

patriarchal and other power structures, the evidence suggests that it works against these structures in sometimes surprising ways,’ and that ‘legal commitments potentially stimulate political change[s] that rearrange the national legislative agenda, bolster civil rights litigation, fuel social and other forms of mobilization.’14 Legal provisions, which might bind or not bind, are not enough, though. They must be accompanied by judicial action that interprets the law in a gender-­ sensitive way. The judiciary is itself biased, full of myths and stereotypes, but it is also

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Leslie C. Green

security of any other state. This interpretation is strengthened by the terms of Article 301, which appears as part of the General Provisions of the Convention: ‘in exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Convention, States Parties shall refrain from any threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Abstract only
Leslie C. Green

treated equally, without any adverse distinction based on race, nationality, 27 religious beliefs or political opinions, 28 or any other distinction founded on similar criteria, such as language, colour, social or professional status, or the like. The reference to nationality makes it clear that aliens serving in a belligerent force who are captured are entitled to the same treatment as prisoners of war

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Leslie C. Green

Supp. (1939), Part III, ‘Rights and duties of states in case of aggression’, 819, 825 n. 1. 4 ‘(4) All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Open Access (free)
Neutrality, discrimination and common carriage
Christopher T. Marsden

audiovisual networks. At the time of writing, it is not at all clear how regulators will react to the mass mobilisations of users in the US (2014), India (2015) and potentially Europe (2016). Political scientists will find this a challenging and illuminating area to study, but for regulatory lawyers it is enough to remark that competition law will not entirely meet this challenge, as I explore in Chapter 2 . A

in Network neutrality
Christopher T. Marsden

Wide Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee is British, the greatest UK contribution to the consumer Internet experience is associated with his work. In consequence, much public and especially political debate on net neutrality is reactive to Berners-Lee’s pronouncements. In 2006 Berners-Lee explained: ‘There have been suggestions that we don’t need legislation because we haven’t had it. These are nonsense, because

in Network neutrality