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capacity with the spoken word. Many of these written and unwritten codes were not unique to medical societies. They were part of a wider nineteenth-century culture 56 Medical societies and scientific culture of public speaking. A tradition of oratory flourished in many different spaces: from literary circles and learned societies to political arenas (e.g. the Belgian parliament) and the courtroom.4 In all these spaces, debating skills in the form of one’s capability to deliver eloquent speeches formed a prerequisite for participation. Given these similarities

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium
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The long aftermath

diseases in Africa are considered indicative of the first world’s failure to share its expertise and wealth with poorer societies, while in the past colonial interpretations of disease in Africa tended to blame the ‘ignorance’ of indigenous populations. Major epidemic disease events test, support, undermine or reshape social, political and medical assumptions and attitudes, and as Paul Slack has explained, the study of past epidemics therefore throws ‘a peculiarly sharp light’ on the ideologies and mentalities of the societies they afflicted.6 Large epidemics challenge

in Stacking the coffins
Bringing healthcare to rural America, 1900–50

workers is examined against the backdrop of economic, social, political, racial and healthcare forces. The local nature of the responses to health needs of the population reveals the importance of time, place, geography, the economy and culture on access to care. Sanitation and public health reforms, a foundation of Progressive Era modernisation, remained relevant as industry drew coal miners to rural areas and the Great Depression caused tenant and small farmers to traverse the country in search of work. Public and private funding as well as state and federal

in Histories of nursing practice

the texts were written by physicians, although some were penned by non-medical proprietors of madhouses. The texts were meant for different purposes – as a practical guide to treatment, advertising a private madhouse, providing a reference book for other physicians, making a political statement or celebrating a relative’s achievements – but they all offer an insight into the way moral treatment for insanity was perceived differently both regionally and over time. What the MAD0181_ERNST_v1.indd 31 08/10/2015 09:18 32 Work, psychiatry and society texts do not

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015

less popular than Majella. In 1933, Bethesda moved to a new location. In the new leprosy politics after 1929, with mandated outpatient treatment and clinics, it was no longer of paramount importance that an asylum be located far from the civilized world. When the asylum became overcrowded, and the river further eroded banks of Bethesda thus threatening the nurses and director’s houses, leprologist Keil supported the request to move the asylum to a new location in Paramaribo. At first the Protestant Association for Leprosy in the Netherlands that operated Bethesda

in Leprosy and colonialism
The Irish perspective

to chronic overcrowding, understaffing and a political apathy that endured well into the twentieth century. The district asylum nurse The district asylum nurse did not in the early years differ significantly from her general nursing fellows, in that at the start of the nineteenth century each were equally untrained and generally regarded with suspicion. Many nurses in workhouses and infirmaries had been inmates of these institutions, and after their care were allowed to remain in exchange for assistance with ill and infirm residents. Although graced with the

in Mental health nursing
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Medical puzzle, politics and search for cures

 15 5 The doctors’ view: medical puzzle, politics and search for cures From the beginning, this disease puzzled and frightened the public and medical experts alike. Public fears were imbued with a nervous tension informed by the background knowledge of the horrors of the First World War, of which this strange and overwhelming disease was an almost inevitable and often forecast sequel. For those working in the medical sphere, this disease challenged their expertise and tested their own confidence in advancements in medicine and their recently acquired and

in Stacking the coffins
The policies of professionalisation in English mental hospitals from 1919 to 1959

in analysing the ‘politics of demarcation and alliance’ so apparent in this field.73 In 1960 and 1961 three events took place that changed the professional, legal and physical environments in which these activities continued. With the passing of the Professions Supplementary to Medicine Act in 1960, OT became regulated by government, so therapists at last had an assured position within the NHS. With the implementation in 1960 of the 1959 Mental Health Act, the Board of Control, which from 1948 had operated within the new nationally co-ordinated management framework

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Doctors’ organisations and activist medics

211 7 Beyond the surgery boundaries: doctors’ organisations and activist medics Migrant South Asian GPs, by the very nature of their roles, became embedded in communities. GPs came in contact with a cross-​section of the local population at regular intervals, often over long periods of time. They benefited from a great deal of professional autonomy in addition to having substantial amounts of social capital. They were therefore in a position to shape the social and political environment in which they found themselves. Doctors’ interviews and archives provide

in Migrant architects of the NHS
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Historicising a ‘revolution’

the exploration of identity or Westminster political intrigues. It is to argue for 280 280Conclusion more space for histories that engage with the interface between migrants and the mainstream, that chart the lives of middle-​class migrants, and map the less conflictual interactions between incomers and the environment that they find. The history of migrants and work, leisure and politics all offer rich terrain to explore in this respect. This study provides an illustration of the extent to which such an approach can prove fruitful. When I started researching the

in Migrant architects of the NHS