the general public – that particular policy areas
are legitimate security concerns and therefore require special attention,
oversight, and control.
Beginning with the religion law of 1997, and progressing through
laws on social organisations, political parties, extremists, migration,
foreigners, the media, and political demonstrations, the Russian state has
tightened up its control of civil society in recent years. In most of these
cases there are sufficient regulations for the state to move with a clear
legal basis against groups or individuals which might be
MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/19/2013, SPi
Reflections on Israeli policies
Israeli policies of population management, surveillance and political control
described in this book had not been entirely known before. Scholars who
previously wrote on state–minority relations were largely guessing in the
dark; thus, their assumptions and biases might have found their ways to the
models or narratives they composed. Two widely held theses in Israeli social
sciences were disproved in the current study: the absence of a clear state
policy towards the
leadership, or at least to intergenerational justice, historically, when it comes to peacebuilding, the UN has typically focused on formal political initiatives such as peace negotiations, elections and institution building.
While certainly important, these activities alone are not enough to ensure peace. Furthermore, young people often find it very difficult, if not entirely impossible, to participate in formal political decision-making for peace.
means that empower people
and societies through political, social, and economic development and
build long-term security for all.
The changing (and changeless) face of engagement
Foreign powers, international organizations, and individuals have been
drawn to Africa for centuries. From the colonial period to independence and throughout the Cold War and beyond, external actors have
been instrumental in defining not only the nature of African security,
but also in determining the continent’s security agenda. Security during
the colonial period, as we have seen, was
MUP REVISED PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/20/2013, SPi
Divide et impera
In chapter 2, following Michel Foucault, I argued that an overriding concern of
Israel, like all modern states, is the population (bio-politics), although the population at the centre of Israel’s concern overlaps neither with those who live within
its boundaries nor with those holding its citizenship (see chapters 1 and 2).
Nevertheless, it has been energetically engaged since its inception in the collection of data – its storage, classification and categorization – according
the securitisation approach, it does not
come as a surprise that the military intervention in Chechnya in 1999 was
initially conveyed discursively in strongly securitised language. After all,
the advocating and use of military means to counter a security threat is
the epitome of asserting that an issue belongs in the security realm and
disregarding the procedures of ‘normal politics’. However, the analysis in
this chapter of the events in Chechnya through the prism of the securitisation framework advocated in this book serves an important purpose.
First, a study of
Health and disease
Traditionally viewed as a developmental or a humanitarian challenge,
addressing Africa’s pressing public health problems has increasingly
come to be seen as a critical human security challenge for the twenty-first
century. While many have criticized the securitization of health issues,
the cross-cutting linkages to other political, social, and economic issues
are real, and so too are the implications for security. For ultimately, if
enhancing the safety and well-being of individuals and communities lies
at the heart of the human security
theoretical tools, but it is in this chapter that I will address and problematise established cybersecurity knowledge. With this in mind, Chapter 1 aims to achieve two objectives.
First, I intend to provide an in-depth overview of cybersecurity knowledge to date that spans academic disciplines, including politics, international relations, security studies, law and computer science. When exploring this research, my aim is to draw attention to the broad ontological, epistemological and methodological homogeneity that is evidenced by a thematic trichotomy of
tragedy in Russia, or the terrorist
attacks on New York and Washington on 11 September 2001 and on
London on 7 July 2005. In the following chapters we consider the extent
to which the domestic politics of Russia have been ‘securitised’. The
securitisation of an issue occurs when a state takes measures beyond what
is ‘normal’ on the grounds that a vital threat exists which demands such
measures. In Russia this process of securitisation has been attempted
across a range of policy areas, and terrorism is but one threat against
Russia which has been cited in this regard
is a severe lacuna because liberal internationalism has a complicated relationship with German thought and politics. When tensions between liberalism and democratisation became evident within Britain and when British imperial power declined, liberal internationalist views of less civilised societies as well as of a militarist German state involved the accentuation of their own British virtues and recollection of liberal beliefs.
Liberal internationalism originated in Victorian Britain, and many Victorians much appreciated German high culture, thought and progress