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Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis and Kostas Ifantis

diversity within a nascent, yet fragile, political unity. Joining together diverse entities in a regional union that respects their individual integrity, the constitutional structure of the Union challenges the organic theory of the polity, without relying entirely on the properties of ‘segmented differentiation’. From this stems its greatest merit as a system of mutual governance, but also its strongest concern: to provide equality of status to its members while allowing for a less rigid understanding of sovereign statehood. In fact, the TEU offers an advanced conception

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Abstract only
Daniel Laqua

internationalism reveals how, by the late nineteenth century, ideas about ‘nationality’ and ‘nationhood’ had become central ways of interpreting the world. Activists were at pains to stress that ‘nationalism’ and ‘internationalism’ were not conflicting ideologies. The sociologist Adolphe Quetelet offers a case in point. As organiser of the first International Statistical Congress in Brussels (1853), he made an early contribution to internationalism in Belgium.1 However, in his work Du Système social et des lois qui le régissent, Quetelet sounded a cautious note. He recognised

in The age of internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930
The development of Indian identity in 1940s’ Durban
Paivathi Raman

-help – bereft, as they were, of citizenship rights and faced with discrimination in areas of employment, housing and services. The Indian community came to occupy a marginalised and ambivalent position in the political and social landscape of South Africa. The making of community was, however, a contentious project. Indians were not transformed into a single and essentialised ethnic group; rather, the South African Indian community has been differentiated over time, its material circumstances in continual flux. At times, Indians have

in Rethinking settler colonialism
Nigel D. White

powers, may either control its creators or be controlled by them. The norm is somewhere in between these two extremes, although the fact that states control the world’s military and economic capability means that the norm is often closer to member states being in control. IGOs remain practically and politically dependent upon member states, although they are normally legally independent. Membership of IGOs is dominated by states, and many of the legal issues revolve around the question as to whether an applicant meets the basic criteria of statehood, or whether it has

in The law of international organisations (third edition)
Stef Jansen

, and (c) that they coincide with the topographical limits of polity territories. These three deconstructions are congruent with three theoretical developments in anthropology that pose a challenge for our studies of borders. First, a recent vogue in some sections of anthropology in the United Kingdom, inspired especially by actor-network theory (Latour 2005), argues that we should conceive of a ‘flat’ social that includes human and non-human ‘actants’. Here we find a call to trace how things ‘act’ to structure practice, how they ‘afford’ certain forms of engagement

in The political materialities of borders
Open Access (free)
Redefining security in the Middle East
Tami Amanda Jacoby and Brent E. Sasley

, 1998b : 215). The Middle East peace process 4 (MEPP) was an additional factor in problematizing the military–strategic concept of security in the Middle East. The MEPP fundamentally altered the structures and symbols of security and state-hood in the region, rendering the military option less popular, at least in the view of the international community. A more propitious climate for diplomatic

in Redefining security in the Middle East
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Fiona Dukelow and Orla O’Donovan

). The texts considered in this book may also be thought of as part of a broader inventory of ‘resources of hope’ (Brah, 2002: 39); their hopefulness and alterity coming closer to realisation at moments and in spaces when and where dominant paradigms can be more openly contested and challenged. The fact that the texts, written across two centuries from 1791 to 1987, remain inspirational points to their significance, not solely as sources of historical lineage for various contemporary social movements, but also insofar as the issues and ideals dealt within them are

in Mobilising classics
David Bruce MacDonald

Croatia agitating for statehood before the 1990s. Nevertheless, Croatian nationalism, like its Serbian counterpart, was born of a sense of cultural submergence and political domination within Yugoslavia, and a perceived threat to Croatian language, culture, and religion. Nationalism came to the forefront in Yugoslavia during a period of decentralisation and liberalisation in the 1960s, when Tito was forced to tone down his hard-line policies on nationalism in return for Western loans. This opened a window of opportunity for a new generation of Croatian Communists, who

in Balkan holocausts?
Daniel Conway

statehood’ can occur, whereby all social and political decisions are taken with a view to protecting the state’s ‘survival’ (Lasswell, 1941). Conscientious objectors are therefore vulnerable to being stigmatised for attacking the military and thus the survival of the body politic itself. Objectors’ performance in the public realm can thus, ironically, aid the state’s disciplinary mechanisms for preserving the status quo as the wider citizenry rallies to the ‘body politic’s’ defence and performs the tasks expected of them. Conclusion Compulsory military service profoundly

in Masculinities, militarisation and the End Conscription Campaign
Jan Pakulski

Saint-Simon, an eccentric French aristocrat and founding father of sociology, uses the now-famous parable of ‘decapitation’ to illustrate the importance, in fact the social indispensability, of what he called ‘leading members’ of the ascendant ‘industrialist class’ – which closely approximates Vilfredo Pareto’s 1935 national ‘elite’ and Gaetano Mosca’s concept of the ‘ruling

in Violence and the state