The first British Methodist missionaries came to Upper Burma in 1887 and the last left in 1966. They were known as 'Wesleyans' before 1932 and afterwards as 'Methodists'. This book is a study of the ambitions, activities and achievements of Methodist missionaries in northern Burma from 1887-1966 and the expulsion of the last missionaries by Ne Win. Henry Venn, the impeccably evangelical Secretary of the Church Missionary Society (CMS), was the most distinguished and inspiring of nineteenth-century mission administrators. Wesleyan missionaries often found property development more congenial than saving souls. In Pakokku in December 1905, a 'weak' American missionary from Myingyan and a couple of Baptist Burman government officials began 'totally immersing' Wesleyans. Proselytism was officially frowned upon in the Indian Empire. The Wesley high schools were extraordinarily successful during the early years of the twentieth century. The Colonial Government was investing heavily in education. A bamboo curtain descended on Upper Burma in May 1942. Wesley Church Mandalay was gutted during the bombing raids of April 1942 and the Japanese requisitioned the Mission House and the Girls High School soon afterwards. General Ne Win was ruthlessly radical in 1962. By April 1964 Bishop was the last 'front-line' Methodist missionary in Upper Burma and the last European of any sort in Monywa. The book pulls together the themes of conflict, politics and proselytisation in to a fascinating study of great breadth.
, Underwood, Young, Early, Adcock and Skinner – and four new
Women’s Auxiliary missionaries – the Misses Moore, Merrick, Hanna and Winston
– arrived between 1908 and 1916. The Upper Burma Mission was beginning to feel
substantial and permanent.
Deteriorating relationships with other missionary societies were the only
blots on the landscape. Perhaps it was a sign of their growing confidence that missionaries
could afford to squabble amongst themselves. In Pakokku in December 1905, a
‘weak’ Americanmissionary from Myingyan
Hunter, The Gospel of Gentility. American Women Missionaries in
Turn-of-the-Century China , New Haven, CT, 1984; Amanda
Porterfield, “Protestant Missionaries. Pioneers of American
Philanthropy,” in Friedman and McGarvie (eds.),
Charity , pp. 49–69; Ussama Makdisi,
“Bringing America Back Into the Middle East. A History of the
First AmericanMissionary Encounter with the
Elizabeth Underwood, Challenged Identities.
North AmericanMissionaries in Korea, 1884–
1934 , Seoul, 2003.
CARE, Box 1170, MECM, April 9, 1947; CARE, Box
944, undated, Douglas MacArthur to Paul French.
CARE, Box 2, Bloomstein manuscript, draft
and smoking it’. 106
In the 1860s and 1870s, under the guidance of Kung, works of
international law were translated into Chinese, starting with Wheaton’s
treatise and followed by those of Woolsey, Martens, Bluntschli and Hall (all
of them translated by W. A. P. Martin, who initially wanted to translate
Vattel’s but found it too antiquated) as well as the Manuel de lois
de la guerre of the Institut. 107
Martin, an Americanmissionary and member of the
such violence had
been over for two months. News of the ‘Bulgarian
atrocities’ first arrived in letters sent from the
region’s Christians to Robert College in Constantinople, an
Americanmissionary school with strong ties to the Bulgarian
intelligentsia. 4 A year earlier, news of similar massacres had
reached Britain following a rebellion in Bosnia. This earlier
global governance was being put forward, indeed one that resonated throughout the rest of the century. Mark Mazower has chronicled how the League of Nations came about not from any universal angst for further war, but from ‘a fusion of Americanmissionary zeal and British imperial calculation’ – a necessary development to prevent further anarchy at the hands of absolutist chauvinism. 25 This was deeply nineteenth century in conception: it was deemed as evolutionary in development, led by an Anglo-American sense of superiority that was firmly rooted in a hierarchical
Jews and other groups attract interest. 55 Among Protestant missionaries, one of the more interesting findings has been that most evangelists were not white Anglo-Americans but members of the same groups that missionaries were trying to convert. Hundreds of African, Afro-American, and Native Americanmissionaries evangelized blacks and Indians throughout the Atlantic world. 56 Finally, in the Catholic realm, perhaps the most stimulating recent book has been Stuart Schwartz’s All Can be Saved . Who would have guessed that, at a time when Catholic orthodoxy was