The first British Methodist missionaries came to Upper Burma in 1887 and the last left in 1966. They were known as 'Wesleyans' before 1932 and afterwards as 'Methodists'. This book is a study of the ambitions, activities and achievements of Methodist missionaries in northern Burma from 1887-1966 and the expulsion of the last missionaries by Ne Win. Henry Venn, the impeccably evangelical Secretary of the Church Missionary Society (CMS), was the most distinguished and inspiring of nineteenth-century mission administrators. Wesleyan missionaries often found property development more congenial than saving souls. In Pakokku in December 1905, a 'weak' American missionary from Myingyan and a couple of Baptist Burman government officials began 'totally immersing' Wesleyans. Proselytism was officially frowned upon in the Indian Empire. The Wesley high schools were extraordinarily successful during the early years of the twentieth century. The Colonial Government was investing heavily in education. A bamboo curtain descended on Upper Burma in May 1942. Wesley Church Mandalay was gutted during the bombing raids of April 1942 and the Japanese requisitioned the Mission House and the Girls High School soon afterwards. General Ne Win was ruthlessly radical in 1962. By April 1964 Bishop was the last 'front-line' Methodist missionary in Upper Burma and the last European of any sort in Monywa. The book pulls together the themes of conflict, politics and proselytisation in to a fascinating study of great breadth.
, Underwood, Young, Early, Adcock and Skinner – and four new
Women’s Auxiliary missionaries – the Misses Moore, Merrick, Hanna and Winston
– arrived between 1908 and 1916. The Upper Burma Mission was beginning to feel
substantial and permanent.
Deteriorating relationships with other missionary societies were the only
blots on the landscape. Perhaps it was a sign of their growing confidence that missionaries
could afford to squabble amongst themselves. In Pakokku in December 1905, a
‘weak’ Americanmissionary from Myingyan
The iconography of Anglo-American inter-imperialism
, and professionals overseas took form within the British Empire. Under the protection of the Pax Britannica they could take advantage of British transportation and communication networks; join the social institutions established by British settler colonists; and acquire first-hand knowledge of investment opportunities.
In part, this was a form of imperial competition; as US businesses competed for British contracts and Americanmissionaries often hoped to extend American standards to other Anglo-Saxons in
designated readers – the society persisted in promoting it.
The society's commitment to the Negro-English Bible of Surinam anticipated its behaviour towards Arabic almost a century later. Indeed, during the early twentieth century, certain prominent British and Americanmissionaries, who were working on the ground in North Africa and who were eager to appeal to Arab elites, expressed deep misgivings about the society's willingness to publish versions for the hoi polloi .
Leaders of the BFBS were
minorities, such as the Americanmissionary-run Robert College. In these
schools, minorities with few rights and privileges ‘acquired their
knowledge of the institutions, laws, and customs of civilised countries
and those principles of political freedom’. For Layard, the spread
democratic institutions and values was in part responsible for helping
most of them clustered in a few places – such as Manila, Iloilo,
Cebu, Baguio, Davao, Zamboanga. Filipinos who made it to high school or
college came in contact with a few American teachers. There was a
sprinkling of zealous Americanmissionaries all over the country, and
there were plantation owners or managers in many parts of the country.
The Americans were influential in running the
suspicion of mission education by the
colonial authorities, 61 further contributed to the fact that medical
education in Britain was effectively blocked from Malawians.
Americanmissionary organisations provided a route to
higher education for a few South-Central Africans. The two first
Malawians to qualify as doctors in the United States were Dr Daniel
Sharpe Malekebu ( c. 1890–1978) and Dr Hastings Kamuzu
Eerdmans, 1980 ); Diane Langmore, Missionary Lives: Papua,
1874–1914 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989 ); Jane Hunter, The Gospel of Gentility: American women
missionaries in turn of the century China (New Haven and London: Yale University Press,
1984 ); Patricia Grimshaw, Paths of Duty: Americanmissionary wives
in nineteenth-century Hawaii (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989); Patricia
Ruth Hill, The World their Household: the American woman’s foreign mission movement
Westerners and Chinese Christians in Chongqing, 1870s-1900
first step toward foreign control of the
Compared with the treaty port cities of the coastal regions, as illustrated
in the other chapters in this volume, foreigners came to Sichuan relatively late. With the
exception of a few dozen French Catholic priests and a handful of British and Americanmissionaries and trade representatives, Westerners did not come to the province in large
numbers until Chongqing was forced open as a treaty port in 1891. Within a few years,
consulates were set up by the British, French
a key cold war location: the site of the largest US Consulate, where
‘China-watchers’ could be based, and a notorious leave
destination for American soldiers during the Vietnam War. It was also a
place in which the Americanmissionary engagement with China, more than
a century old, could concentrate now that the mainland had been closed,
as well as a crucial location for Sinophiles. Yet although the American