America's wrong such that nothing other than a heroic individualism, even anarchism was really adequate? If we say that nothing less than exile and defiance was acceptable in Nazi Germany, then we must grant Thoreau's case for personal heroism as the only way to respond to a very great evil that has tacit support of most people and the very vocal support of a substantial minority.
(Shklar 2019 [1992b] , p. 174)
Shklar's argument seems to be that the moral community in which
On the sociological paradoxes of weak dialectical formalism and embedded
correlation between political centralisation and conceptually formalised knowledge of the kind that is often seen
as actively coding the workings of individual social systems, such as ability
or inability to pay, educational success or failure, legal versus non-legal, parties of government versus opposition parties, etc. It would seem to make far
more sense to contrast political centralisation with anarchism or notions of
indigenous communal rights, or formal democracy with direct democracy, or
codified knowledge with the creativity of the intuitive imagination. Moreover
Thus ‘suspicion of verticality’ prevailed ‘as the reigning spirit of left-wing protest movements of the last half century’ from ‘a kind of anarchism of direct participation’ with roots in Quaker practice through to the ‘horizontalism’ of Occupy.
Gitlin characterizes each of his thick descriptions of these developments as a dilemma of movement organization in the face of the culture industry (though the latter is not his preferred term
On mediated unity and overarching legal-political form
Marx, ‘Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right: Introduction’.
35 Anarchists are amongst the few that consistently contest the necessity and rationality
of the state. For the best and most comprehensive overview, see Peter H. Marshall,
Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism (London: HarperCollins, 1992).
36 Hegel, Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte, Part IV, section 3, and
Grundlinien, Part III.
37 If one reads the Phenomenology in conjunction with the Philosophy of Right, one
notes a symmetry between Hegel