clothing and furniture remained below 1938 levels until 1953 when consumer expenditure across the board increased rapidly. By 1960 it was 27% higher than it had been a decade before.10 Advertising expenditure broadly mirrored this growth in popular consumption. In the early 1950s, with austerity controls continuing to limit private-sector consumption, total advertising expenditure stood at about 1.4% of national income, considerably lower than the immediate pre-war level of 2.1%.11 Expenditure on advertising, however, began to grow steadily from 1953 onwards and

in Hard sell
Abstract only
Austerity, abundance and race in post-war visual culture

interesting trajectories and conversations around foreignness. Though the connection between the material abundance of Bratby’s so-called tabletop paintings – of which Jean and Still Life in Front of Window ( Figure 4.1 ) is a notable example – and the culture of austerity from which they emerged may seem obvious, there are multiple ways in which the relationship between the visual

in Cultures of decolonisation

crimes, including innovative large-scale organized thefts made profitable by continued post-war austerity.3 The Metropolitan Police’s Register of Deaths by Violence also showed a new pattern of violence: by 1953 the numbers of infanticides and women’s deaths from abortion had dropped under new social provisions for mothers and families, while deaths caused by firearms and service rifles increased. Diminished manpower and a shifting population led the Metropolitan Police to develop new investigative techniques, with increased training in specimen collection and the re

in Murder Capital
Transnational productions and practices, 1945–70
Editors: Ruth Craggs and Claire Wintle

What were the distinctive cultures of decolonisation that emerged in the years between 1945 and 1970, and what can they uncover about the complexities of the ‘end of empire’ as a process? Cultures of Decolonisation brings together visual, literary and material cultures within one volume in order to explore this question. The volume reveals the diverse ways in which cultures were active in wider political, economic and social change, working as crucial gauges, microcosms, and agents of decolonisation.

Individual chapters focus on architecture, theatre, museums, heritage sites, fine art, and interior design alongside institutions such as artists’ groups, language agencies and the Royal Mint in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Europe. Drawing on a range of disciplinary perspectives, these contributions offer revealing case studies for those researching decolonisation at all levels across the humanities and social sciences.

The collection demonstrates the transnational character of cultures of decolonisation (and of decolonisation itself), and illustrates the value of comparison – between different sorts of cultural forms and different places – in understanding the nature of this dramatic and wide-reaching geopolitical change. Cultures of Decolonisation illustrates the value of engaging with the complexities of decolonisation as enacted and experienced by a broad range of actors beyond ‘flag independence’ and the realm of high politics. In the process it makes an important contribution to the theoretical, methodological and empirical diversification of the historiography of the end of empire.

This book offers a range of new perspectives on the character and reputation of English monasteries in the later middle ages. The later middle ages was an era of evolution in English monastic life in late medieval England. The book surveys the internal affairs of English monasteries, including recruitment, the monastic economy, and the standards of observance and learning. It looks at the relations between monasteries and the world, exploring the monastic contribution to late medieval religion and society and lay attitudes towards monks and nuns in the years leading up to the Dissolution. The book covers both male and female houses of all orders and sizes. The late medieval 'reforms' of the Benedictine Order included a relaxation of observances on diet, the common life and private property, and little of the Cistercians' primitive austerity can be found in late medieval houses of the order. Monastic spirituality can rarely be accessed through visitation evidence or administrative records, although an impression of the devotional climate within individual houses is occasionally provided by monastic chronicles. Looking beyond the statistics of foundation and dissolution alone, levels of support for the monastic ideal in late medieval England might also be assessed from the evidence of lay patronage of existing houses.

Abstract only

absolute essentials like food and housing. For too many people staying above water is a daily struggle. 1 If austerity-era policies – including UK government welfare reforms like the so-called ‘Universal Credit’ – are the evident cause of a desperate rise in the number and use of food banks since the global economic crash of 2008, 2 hunger has

in The politics of hunger
Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.

Bussing, race and urban space, 1960s–80s

In 1960–62, a large number of white autochthonous parents in Southall became very concerned that the sudden influx of largely non-Anglophone Indian immigrant children in local schools would hold back their children’s education. It was primarily to placate such fears that ‘dispersal’ (or ‘bussing’) was introduced in areas such as Southall and Bradford, as well as to promote the integration of mostly Asian children. It consisted in sending busloads of immigrant children to predominantly white suburban schools, in an effort to ‘spread the burden’. This form of social engineering went on until the early 1980s. This book, by mobilising local and national archival material as well as interviews with formerly bussed pupils in the 1960s and 1970s, reveals the extent to which dispersal was a flawed policy, mostly because thousands of Asian pupils were faced with racist bullying on the playgrounds of Ealing, Bradford, etc. It also investigates the debate around dispersal and the integration of immigrant children, e.g. by analysing the way some Local Education Authorities (Birmingham, London) refused to introduce bussing. It studies the various forms that dispersal took in the dozen or so LEAs where it operated. Finally, it studies local mobilisations against dispersal by ethnic associations and individuals. It provides an analysis of debates around ‘ghetto schools’, ‘integration’, ‘separation’, ‘segregation’ where quite often the US serves as a cognitive map to make sense of the English situation.

week. Although we perceived in this many things which are to be embraced by good monks with all enthusiasm and delight of mind, some however occurred in the course of reading which seemed to us to be of greater austerity than can be observed by monks in this unhappy age of ours. Without doubt, so great a number of monks are contained in England, and so great and so abundant are

in Monasticism in late medieval England, c. 1300–1535
Abstract only

seen throughout this book, what affected the exhibition industry also affected the general populace (and vice versa). Given the slow 239 240 Cinemas and cinemagoing in wartime Britain, 1939–45 pace of reconstruction, the CEA warned against seeing the immediate postwar period as a land of milk and honey: Many unpleasant shocks and an even greater measure of austerity may await the population of these isles. Such increase in contrast to the long awaited relief is doubly disappointing and often more depressing in its effect upon morale than many of the frightening

in Cinemas and cinemagoing in wartime Britain, 1939–45