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Par Kumaraswami, Antoni Kapcia and Meesha Nehru

the population; externally, Cuba was now more isolated than ever, with no exogenous solutions being apparent. After years of severe austerity, mass emigration and social fragmentation, however, it was not external models, but the local, that provided a new definition of the collective. Thus, both organically and, eventually, as a result of state policy recognising the importance of this local level of activity, the national collective was reconfigured once again and given extra impetus with the Batalla de Ideas. This new emphasis on the national – meaning local and

in Literary culture in Cuba
Brian Baker

: British diminution since the war has been a long-drawn-out process. But its starting point is clear: the illusions bred by victory in 1945, under a leader of 1914 vintage, followed virtually without intermission by the realities of financial dependency on Washington, austerity at home and imperial retreat abroad […] Little alteration of political arrangements; moderate growth but still low productivity; pinched universities and crumbling railways; the unmoved authority of Treasury, Bank and City; an underling diplomacy. The record lacks high relief. The British way of

in Iain Sinclair
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John Kinsella

prose. Nevertheless, something like a theory is what we are both asking questions about. Despite my questions and uncertainties, I think we may be close to that common ground. If set theory is to be a basis, an analogue, a metaphor of the poetic, then I’m puzzled. Do you mean by ‘set’ what a set theorist would mean? We need to sort this one out. On the face of it, sets look like a wrong turn. Here’s a sketch of why. Sets have a studied austerity: it’s called extensionality. Sets inherit it from the rigid emptiness of the logic in which set theory finds its raison d

in Disclosed poetics
Susan Watkins

tradition (variously philanthropic, documentary and critical) of writing about the working class represented by works as various as Henry Mayhew’s London Labour and the London Poor (1861), George Orwell’s The Road to Wigan Pier (1937) and Richard Hoggart’s The Uses of Literacy (1957). 4 Events in In Pursuit take place in 1949–50, the period of ‘austerity Britain’, 5 characterised by dependence on food imports (leading to continued rationing), economic hardship and a housing crisis in London as a result of the Blitz. The third Labour

in Doris Lessing
Anglo-American attitudes in the English fiction of mid-century
Patrick Parrinder

tribute to George Orwell, who had died five months earlier at the age of forty-seven. Much of this special number was given over to Orwell’s unpublished notebooks from 1940–41, in which he commented on the progress of the second world war from Dunkirk to the German occupation of the Ukraine. In 1950 the aftermath of war was everywhere, both in literature – novels set in wartime London included Elizabeth Bowen’s The Heat of the Day (1949) and Graham Greene’s The End of the Affair (1951) – and in everyday life. Postwar austerity under the Attlee government included

in End of empire and the English novel since 1945
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Of 1688 and reinventing the past
Rachel Willie

. Locating persecution of breakaway sects in the sixteenth century as the reason for strongly held convictions in the early seventeenth, Macaulay presents a teleological view of the build up to civil war and regicide. Macaulay also suggests a causal connection between the Elizabethan settlement and the emergence of puritan austerity: had there not been such a divergence of ecclesiastical opinion after the Reformation, the godly would not have dogmatically looked to the Old Testament and Hebrew Scriptures for guidance through their suffering. Macaulay claims that ‘rules

in Staging the revolution
Conservative modernity and the female crime novel
Cora Kaplan

, believed, if pessimistically, in the inevitable fact that a modernising global culture would change England – and for England we should read Britain – out of all recognition. Perhaps in this sense the two novels, in spite of their very different takes on national history and the legacies of empire, are connected by a deeper, residual continuity of concerns. Notes 1 See Peter Hennessy, Never Again: Britain, 1945–51 (London: Penguin, 2006) p. 318; Hennessy sees this as indicative that the period was ‘the era of the middle-brow’. 2 David Kynaston, Austerity Britain

in End of empire and the English novel since 1945
Love in a postcolonial climate
Deborah Philips

of life, and Nigeria and other parts were sometimes spoken of as the ‘white man’s grave’.37 The narrative puts its heroine, Sylvia, through most of these trials; those which she does not directly experience herself she encounters in her role as a doctor. Sylvia suffers from malaria, comes close to contracting leprosy, and nurses the doctor hero through a venomous snake bite. Despite its dangers, Africa represents an attractive challenge to Sylvia; depressed by austerity Britain, and bruised by a broken relationship, it holds out an appealing exoticism far removed

in End of empire and the English novel since 1945
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Daniel Lea

) Against the baroque verbosity of The Electric Michelangelo, Hall’s third novel is as spare and bleak as the degraded Cumbrian landscape in which it is set. Gone is the florid artistry of a narrative spanning nations, and gone too is the colourful vibrancy of Hall’s carnivalesque vision of history. Instead, The Carhullan Army sets its story in a near-future Britain in which financial corruption, creeping environmental despoliation, global geopolitical instability, and resource shortage have brought about an Orwellian nightmare of material austerity and restrictive

in Twenty-first-century fiction
Mr Sampath to Waiting for the Mahatma
John Thieme

station, leads to his being arrested and detained without trial. There is a symmetry about his finding himself in prison, since he has previously been told that the self-imposed Gandhian austerity of living in sweepers’ huts is a preparation for jail, a fate which those involved in the struggle must expect. Despite this, prison, a ‘heterotopia of deviation’ in Foucault’s taxonomy of ‘other spaces’,56 is another location that throws the social codes on which Sriram has been raised into sharp relief. It is a space in which his brahmin desire to avoid any possibility of

in R.K. Narayan