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event, yet another bout of anticlericalism in France, resulted in an influx of French women religious into England in the early 1900s. This development influenced further changes in religious life in England and is beyond the remit of this book.9 The use of 1900 as the end date of this book provides a _________________ level. This is another facet of nineteenth-century religious life that is currently under-researched. 6 M.R. MacGinley, PBVM, A Dynamic of Hope: Institutes of Women Religious in Australia (Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia: Crossing Press, 2002

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Liverpool and was able to ‘pay us a visit, which filled us with great joy’.71 In 1872, Mother Mary Vincent (Ellen Whitty), former superior of the mother house in Dublin and current superior of the convent in Brisbane, Australia, stopped at Bermondsey. Her visit ‘was a source of mutual pleasure, for she gave an interesting and most edifying account of the labours of our Dear Sisters in that New Continent’.72 The annals of the Faithful Companions of Jesus noted: On September 12th & 13th, we passed some delightful recreation with dear Mother Philomena Higgins, who with our

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-two convents in existence in 1851. 81 Research on individual congregations or founders such as Liz West’s, One Woman’s Journey: Mary Potter: Founder – Little Company of Mary (Richmond, Victoria, Australia: Spectrum Publications, 2000) does address the issue of the relationship between Mary Potter and Bishop Edward Gilpin Bagshawe in great detail. Table 1.7 Regional distributions often congregations by diocese, 1900 Region RSM SCSP DC SND FCJ SMG SHCJ DHM CSJP SSJ Total % Westminster Southwark Birmingham Hexham B ever ley Liverpool Nottingham Sal ford Clifton

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England, 1500–1800’, Australian Feminist Studies, 13 (1998), 269–80; Mary Hilton and Pam Hirsch, eds, Practical Visionaries: Women, Education and Social Progress, 1790–1930 (London: Longman, 2000); Sue Morgan, ed., Women, Religion and Feminism in Britain, 1750–1900 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002). 4 Judith Moore, A Zeal for Responsibility: The Struggle for Professional Nursing in Victorian England, 1868–1883 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988), p. xv. 5 Anne Witz, Professions and Patriarchy (London: Routledge, 1992), p. 60. 6 Sarah A. Curtis, Educating

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published interviews of North American and Australian former and current women religious. The stories they tell are often polarised into ‘strong women’ who worked through repressive pre-conciliar regimes to do great things and ‘angry women’ who left, enraged and unable to countenance what they saw as the hypocrisy of religious life and the Catholic Church. 7 Stories about women religious by those they educated are equally divergent. The feminist press Virago published There’s Something about a Convent Girl in 1991. Its founder, Carmen Callil, a convent girl in 1940s

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Post-war modernity and religious vocations

rallying cry of the Second Vatican Council. The first International Congress of Religious Teachers, held in Rome in September 1951, encouraged further professional and theological education of women religious. 112 The following year, the first International Congress of Mothers-General was attended by 700 religious from Europe, North America, India and Australia. This Congress directed sisters to address the ‘changed condition of the world today’ by a ‘revitalizing of religious life in accordance with its basic constitutions and the particular rules and regulations of

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through Two Millennia (London: Harvard University Press, 1996); Elizabeth A. West, One Woman’s Journey: Mary Potter: Founder – Little Company of Mary (Richmond, Victoria, Australia: Spectrum Publications, 2000). Almost any history of a congregation or founder published after 1980 will illustrate some difficulties that the congregation or founder faced when dealing with episcopal or clerical authority. 212 Corporate identities to scripture served to reinforce her authority.7 Ellice Hopkins used her religious beliefs to create a public ministry that attempted to

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desire for a professional career. The influence of spirituality needs to be addressed, despite the difficulties. The evidence found in convent archives indicated that this ‘call’, as heard by aspirants to 28 Rendall, 1985, pp. 73–107; Gill, 1994, p. 84; Malmgreen, 1987, p. 56; Morgan, 2002, p. 163. 29 Susan Morgan, ‘Faith, Sex and Purity: The Religio-Feminist Theory of Ellice Hopkins’, Women’s History Review, 9 (2000), 13–34 (p. 13). 30 Davidoff and Hall, 1987, pp. 147–8. 31 Patricia Crawford, ‘Women, Religion and Social Action in England, 1500– 1800’, Australian

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faster. Australia tends to be on the ball as well and to move fairly fast. 14 British sisters working in their motherhouses in Rome interacted regularly with their international sisters and suggested a vast array of cultural differences in the uptake of renewal: The US was moving faster and I think Latin America was moving faster in some ways because they were already involved in the barrios, in small inserted communities, and we were beginning, um no we didn’t begin until the early 1970s, to move into very smaller communities … other European countries were

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’s Journey: Mary Potter: Founder – Little Company of Mary (Richmond, Victoria, Australia: Spectrum Publications, 2000), p. 23. 22 DC: ‘Remarks on the Life of Sister Mary Langdale’, p. 3. 23 [Wheaton], 1924, p. 108. 24 Martha Vicinus, Independent Women: Work and Community for Single Women, 1850–1920 (London: Virago Press, 1985), pp. 219–25. For more on the settlement movement see Katharine Bentley Beauman, Women and the Settlement Movement (London: The Radcliffe Press, 1996). 94 Developing identities places we visit’.25 Log books from board schools of the 1870s noted

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