university, although communication still tended to be of a more public style. In Britain the initial publications and presentations of the Royal Society (established in 1660) were often formal but relatively accessible, designed for those with a more general interest, and it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the society’s publications and presentations took on a far more specialised nature (Knight, 2006 ).
Without a clear profession or its associated salary, ‘researchers’ or ‘practitioners’ of the time who did not teach the classical
they work, so it is
advisable to enlist the help of someone who is experienced in using them.
Hospital and/or University librarians are often happy to book you in for an
individual session on request.
A Research Handbook for Patient and Public Involvement Researchers
Selecting the data sources - where to search
Figure 7 Examples of electronic databases
As a Minimum
• Cochrane Library
• British Nursing Index
N.B. Which databases you choose
depends on your review question but
you will need to be able to
general approach, the design of your study and the methods that you will use.
Consider the example from a student’s first attempt to frame her dissertation question and a couple of her sub-questions:
Main question: How do contemporary integration discourses construct Muslims, Britishness and their relations?
Sub-question 1: How do labels and narratives of radicalisation and community cohesion construct ideas of what it means to be British?
Sub-question 2: In what ways are Muslims constructed in relation to the War on Terror
Providing some basic numerical data: This can help to show the prevalence (or otherwise) of the phenomenon under consideration. For example, the opening paragraph of an answer to an essay question about racism in football could usefully include some figures about attitudes to ethnic differences from the British Social Attitudes Survey. These data might help you to show that racism persists in Britain. Whilst the figures may not be about football directly, they serve to contextualise the issue of racism in football against broader patterns of racism in society at large
and perfect British India (Pandey, 1990). In addition, this construction of difference is significant in assessing the extent of transformation of the economy. The acceleration of change to the Indian economy as asserted by the colonialists was not a total transformation. Evidence shows the existence of a pre-colonial capitalist economy within India, such as sustained trade links with the Middle East (Alavi, 1989). The creation of the central administration of colonial India does demonstrate a significant transformation of Indian society. The creation of surveys
Network for Public Communication of Science and Technology (PCST) Conference
Redpop, Latin American and Caribbean Network for Science and Technology Popularisation
Science Communication Conference
Box 12.4 Selected academic journals of relevance to research communication
Applied Environmental Education and Communication
British Journal of Educational Technology
Citizen Science: Theory and Practice
Communicating Astronomy with the Public
point you towards the key parts of the book which might assist you with whatever it is you are currently writing.
1 It means that throughout this book we also assume British English spelling and conventions for writing, which can vary considerably from those in Australia, the United States and elsewhere where English is a main language.
Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 25(:4),:355Department of Health (2007) Information sheets 366, doi: 10.1111/inm.12201.
and consent forms guidance for researchers and
reviewers, version 3.1. London: DH.
Seidelman, W. (1996) Nuremberg lamentation:
for the forgotten victims of medical science.
Flood, C., Bowers, L., and Parkin, D. (2008)
British Medical Journal, 313:,1463.
Estimating the costs of conflict and containment
on adult acute inpatient psychiatric wards.
Weindling, P. (2005) Nazi Medicine and the
Nursing Economics, 26(:5):,325-30.
Nuremberg Trials: From
Development. OECD Publishing: Paris.
5) Crawford, M.J., Robotham D., Thana, L, Patterson, S.,
Weaver, T., Barber, R., Wykes, T. and Rose, D. (2011)
Selecting outcome measures in mental health: the
views of service users. Journal of Mental Health 20:4,
6) Ennis, L., and Wykes, T. (2013) Impact of patient
involvement in mental health research: longitudinal
study. British Journal of Psychiatry 203:5, 381-386.
17) Rees, R. and Oliver, S. (2012) Stakeholder
perspectives and participation in reviews., Chapter 2
in D. Gough, S. Oliver and J. Thomas, An Introduction