, New Jersey-London, Rutgers University
Press, 2009, 179–186; John and Jean Comaroff, Ethnography and the Historical Imagination, Boulder Colorado, Westview Press, 1992, 215–235;
John Chircop, ‘Pax Britannica and “Free Trade and Open Seas”: shifting
British informal colonialism in North Africa, 1800–1860s’, Mediterranean
Review 8, 1, 2015, 29–57.
3 For the relationship between formal and informal empire building, see
Bernard Porter, The Lion’s Share. A Short History of BritishImperialism,
1850–1983, London and New York, Longman, 1994, 8–12.
for example, Warwick Anderson, Colonial Pathologies: American
Tropical Medicine, Race, and Hygiene in the Philippines (Durham and London: Duke
University Press, 2006 ); David Arnold, The Tropics and the Traveling
Gaze: India, Landscape and Science, 1800–1856 (Seattle and London: University of
Washington Press, 2006 ); Mark Harrison, Climates and Constitutions:
Health, Race, Environment and BritishImperialism in India, 1600–1850 (New Delhi
and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002 ); Eric T. Jennings, Curing
Narratives of balance and moderation at the limits of human
This sense of anxiety and displacement lasted into the twentieth century: see P. D. Curtin, ‘“The white man's grave” image and reality, 1780–1850’, The Journal of British Studies , 1 (1961), 94–110, at p. 94; and M. Harrison, Climates and Constitutions: Health, Race, Environment and BritishImperialism in India, 1600–1850 (Delhi and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), esp. pp. 102
.), Memoirs of William Hickey
(London: Purnell Book Services, ), p. xiii.
50 Bayly, Indian Society, p. 106.
51 Bayly, Indian Society, pp. 106, 115; M. Harrison, Climates and Constitutions.
Health, Race, Environment and BritishImperialism in India 1600–1850
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 111–12; M. Macmillan,
Women of the Raj (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1988).
52 Data is taken from D.G. Crawford, Roll of the Indian Medical Service
1615–1930 (London: W. Thacker, 1930).
53 D. Arnold, Colonising the Body. State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in
opportunity to engage in the care of the sick and wounded, as well as
the ability to then record such service in print, offered practical and
ideological channels through which women were able to contribute
to the project of Britishimperialism in India. However, rather than
suggest that nursing is wholly a way in which gender and class roles
were contested in the pages of the colonial medical diary, this chapter
will consider how nursing and diary writing are presented as natural
extensions of typical female activity, conducted through and enabled
by the extraordinary
Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914
: Oxford University Press, 1989).
22 J. Gardiner Austin, Hongkong Government Gazette, 4 April 1874, p. 158.
23 ‘Medical Committee Report on the Plague’, 3 April 1895, p. 31, http://sunzi.
lib.hku.hk/hkgro/view/s1895/1457.pdf (accessed 24 April 2015).
24 Dr Philip Bernard Chenery Ayres, ‘Hong Kong Colonial Surgeon’s Report
for 1880’, 20 May 1881, http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkgro/view/a1880/2462.pdf
(accessed 24 April 2015).
25 M. Harrison, Climates and Constitutions: Health, Race, Environment and
BritishImperialism in India, 1600–1850 (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
parliament of South Africa in 1960 signalled full independence for
former colonies and encouraged critical reflection on the wider
ideologies of social and evolutionary progress that had sustained
Britishimperialism. 1 A larger, educated reading public encouraged
the publication of new journals and critical
reflections on public life, creating a broader counter-culture