those who have assumed that the conceptual frameworks provided by evolutionism led to a confidence in British supremacy, Freeman’s writings suggest that racial ideas did not necessarily issue in an ethnocentric belief in progress and did not always transform Victorian interpretations of the past. Freeman’s cultural conception of race was inextricably associated with the older Liberal Anglican philosophy of history, which was not unilinear.
Contrary to the assumption that there is a link between the rise of racial theory and the rhetoric and ambitions of British
political tendencies of the entire Aryan race. 1 Second, Freeman’s account of Aryan development was not unilinear but cyclical. In Freeman’s analysis, liberty was always precarious due to the difficulty of securing an optimal-size polity on the one hand, and the political participation of the citizenry on the other. It was Freeman’s preoccupation with the history of the Aryan race, understood in these terms, that informed his response to Britishimperialism.
While scholars such as Hall, John MacKenzie, and Jeffrey Richards have suggested that the Victorians were
‘History is past politics, politics is present history’
research of the practitioners of the comparative method, Müller and Maine. It will be argued that Freeman’s intuitive acceptance of the comparative method was prepared by Arnold, as he sought to identify similarities in the institutions of ancient and modern Europe and to ‘prove’ the existence of an Aryan race based on a common democratic culture. Charting the advancing civilisation of the Greeks, Romans, and Teutons, Freeman’s celebration of Aryan continuity was tinged with Arnoldian anxieties about recapitulation, and this led him to fear the consequences of British
76 Freeman, ‘The English People in Relation to the Eastern Question’, pp. 490–2.
77 Jonathan Parry , The Politics of Patriotism: English Liberalism, National Identity and Europe, 1830–1886 ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2006 ). The relationship of the Eastern Question to wider imperial policy is also considered in Leslie Rogne Schumacher, A ‘Lasting Solution’: The Eastern Question and BritishImperialism, 1875–1878 , unpublished PhD thesis, University of Minnesota, 2012.
? , Cambridge, 2003.
Rosenberg, “Missions to the
World,” p. 242; Curti, American Philanthropy Abroad ,
pp. 229, 395; Harald Fischer-Tiné, “Global Civil
Society and the Forces of Empire. The Salvation Army, BritishImperialism, and the ‘Prehistory’ of NGOs (ca.
1880–1920),” in Sebastian Conrad and Dominic
Roger Louis, Ends of BritishImperialism. The Scramble
for Empire, Suez and Decolonization; Collected Essays ,
London, 2006; see essays on Suez, pp. 589–725; Muhammad Abd
el-Wahab Sayed-Ahmed, Nasser and American Foreign Policy,
1952–1956 , London, 1989, pp. 97–145; Michael
B. Oren, “Escalation to Suez: The Egypt-Israel Border War,
1949–56,” Journal of Contemporary
imperialist project. 25
Jennifer Pitts mentions only two alternative thinkers in
nineteenth-century Britain critical of Britishimperialism: the linguist Henry
Stanley and the polymath Francis Newman (brother of the famous cardinal
Newman). 26 But the most widely
known liberal critics of the British Empire were Richard Cobden, John Bright and
Herbert Spencer. 27 In France, Gaston
Jèze and Charles Solomon were critical of colonial rule but they did not
Millar, The Constitution of Republican Identity in
Belfast: A Lacanian Psychoanalysis (PhD dissertation,
University College Dublin, 1999), p. 241).
Smith notes the tendency among republicans to
view those nationalists whom they perceive as being persuaded by
Britishimperialism as being morally ‘weak people
could still rally public support, his influence
within the Congress Party was waning and he had little direct
involvement in the partition negotiations. 5 ) Evan Jenkins, the Governor of
pre-partition Punjab, emerges as a Cassandra-like figure, persistently
warning of the dire consequences of partition. But my argument also has
a great deal to do with the sweeping drives of Britishimperialism,
Cambridge University Press, 1985 ), p. 119.
P. J. Cain and Anthony Hopkins, BritishImperialism:
Crisis and Deconstruction, 1914–1990 (London:
Longman, 1993 ), p.
See Wm. Roger Louis, The