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Lucy Bland

2 Butterfly women, ‘Chinamen’, dope fiends and metropolitan allure The susceptible modern woman I n June 1919 the Illustrated Sunday Herald published an article entitled ‘Is the Modern Woman a Hussy?’ The writer claimed that the country was being subjected to ‘a virulent epidemic of Retrospective Morality … that exasperating form of moral criticism which compares the faults of the present with the morals of the past’. He quoted a recent assertion of Judge Darling’s as one example: ‘“between the women of today and their mothers there is the whole width of

in Modern women on trial
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Chris Pearson

ZNIEFF inventory the army had unintentionally overseen the creation of an ecological treasure trove. The inventory for the 13,700 ha ZNIEFF at Suippes Camp described how the militarized environment provided habitat for regionally rare and endangered plants, such as knapweed broomrape and grass vetchling. Its woodlands, meanwhile, constituted a ‘remarkable biological milieu’ that had largely given way to fields elsewhere in the region.35 The camp’s grasslands and woodlands played host to sixty-seven species of butterflies (including the nationally protected large blue

in Mobilizing nature
Sexual transgression in the age of the flapper
Author: Lucy Bland

This book looks at the highly publicised, sensational trials of several young female protagonists in the period 1918-1924. These cases, all presented by the press as morality tales involving drugs, murder, adultery, miscegenation and sexual perversion, are used as a prism through which to identify concerns about modern femininity. The book first examines a libel case, brought by a well-known female dancer against a maverick right-wing MP for the accusation of lesbianism. One aspect of this libel trial involved the drawing up of battle-lines in relation to the construction of a new, post-war womanhood. The book then looks at two inquests and three magistrate-court trials that involved women and drugs; young women in relationships with Chinese men were also effectively in the dock. One way of accessing court proceedings has been via the account of the trial published as part of the Notable British Trial Series. There are no extant trial transcripts. But there are prosecution depositions lodged at the National Archives, much press reportage, and a number of relevant memoirs, all giving a keen sense of the key issues raised by the trial. The book also focuses on an extraordinary divorce case, that of Christabel Russell, involving cross-dressing, claims of a virgin birth, extreme sexual ignorance, and a particular brand of eccentric modern femininity.

Entomology, botany and the early ethnographic monograph in the work of H.-A. Junod
Patrick Harries

lepidoptera purely as an expression and proof of God’s glory. Through purchase and exchange, Robert assembled a magnificent collection of 23,000 butterfly species from all over the world. But while Robert was only interested in the remarkable beauty and diversity of these insects, a collector such as Frédéric de Rougemont’s son Frédéric (a pastor in the Independent Church) sought to discern the laws behind

in Science and society in southern Africa
Protection of animals in nineteenth-century Britain
Author: Diana Donald

This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.

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Lucy Bland

: she was labelled the butterfly woman/girl. The term sounds benign but as we have seen, it reduced the butterfly woman’s agency, pinning her down j j 213 modern women on trial to a superficial and transitory life of flitting aimlessly from nightclub to nightclub, sipping the deadly nectars of drink and dope.� Although dance was not explicitly attacked in press reports of the trials, women’s sensation-seeking was, particularly as exhibited by the female audience. The trials of Edith, Marguerite and Christabel all involved press complaints about the cross

in Modern women on trial
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Gender, sexuality and the representation of popular dance
Allison Abra

examination of the gendered discourses that surrounded dancing demonstrates that this leisure form was always prone to some degree of controversy, and was a site for the reification – but also the transgression – of lines of class, gender and sexuality. However, popular dance also became progressively more respectable and integrated into the national culture as the professionalisation and commercialisation processes described in the preceding chapters unfolded. Butterflies and lounge lizards: popular dance and the redefinition of gender In February 1920, the Daily Express

in Dancing in the English style
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Indrani Sen

within the white community in India. Hence, colonial discourse was rife with hostile constructions of the white woman as a shallow, frivolous social butterfly who was busy enjoying the power of her sexuality and neglectful of her domestic responsibilities. Furthermore, in collating primary texts for my anthology, Memsahibs’ Writings (2008) I sought to capture in the words

in Gendered transactions
Working for the British in Calais 1916
Janet Lee

these roles. De Havilland emphasized the personal bravery and physical stamina required of FANY drivers and juxtaposed this against what she called ‘butterfly chauffeuses’: girls out for new experiences and a good time who find out quickly that driving an ambulance in France is ‘not so thrilling and enjoyable as some inexperienced girls imagine it to be’.66 She shares the story of one woman who, unprepared and unwilling to work and finding she could not ‘stick it out’, soon returns home to England. Although de Havilland does not identify this ‘butterfly chauffeuse’, most

in War girls