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Transforming gender and magic on stage and screen
Katharine Goodland

Victorian ‘paterfamilias’ in James Macready's actor-manager interpretation. This was followed at the end of the nineteenth century by a shift in the spotlight to Caliban as an exemplar of Darwinian evolutionary theory. Next came John Gielgud's and Derek Jacobi's Freudian interpretations, which, as one reviewer wrote, energised the play by ‘switching our interest from the power of Prospero to his psychology’. 6 The Darwinian and Freudian interpretations gave way after the Second World War to post-colonial Tempests, which

in Shakespeare and the supernatural
Supernatural generation and the limits of power in Shakespeare’s Richard III
Chelsea Phillips

in turn disrupt reproductive processes, signalling a symbiotic relationship between the body politic and the bodies of individual citizens. Shakespeare's supernatural generations Caliban most clearly illustrates the power of maternal impression and witchcraft to shape a child. Sycorax escaped execution by ‘pleading the belly’, drawing on the legal precedent that spared pregnant women from execution, but she is unable to protect her child from the natural magic of maternal impression. 18

in Shakespeare and the supernatural
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Shakespeare and the supernatural
Victoria Bladen and Yan Brailowsky

categories: some supernatural generations are marked by maternal impression and/or witchcraft that could have potent effects on a child (exemplified by Caliban, affected by his mother's witchcraft); generative events accompanied by portents, when births are followed by strange natural phenomena; births seen as prophecies or signs; and changeling children. Political disruption could lead to unnatural births, and these could facilitate conjuring, as in Macbeth. Explaining supernatural events, while not reducing their threat, could at least render the supernatural legible

in Shakespeare and the supernatural
The view through French spectacles
Richard Hillman

inhumanity of the Old – ‘Je pense qu’il y a plus de barbarie à manger un homme vivant qu’à le manger mort’ (I thinke there is more barbarisme in eating men alive, than to feed upon them being dead) 22 – is the interdependence of the two perspectives, their contingency on interpretation. Each mode of being lies within human capacity, and when Montaigne exposes the atrocious cruelty of ‘des voisins et concitoyens ( our neighbours and fellow-citizens)’, 23 he evokes the darkness within us . So, effectively, does Prospero, when he presents his Caliban/Cannibal, along with

in The Shakespearean comic and tragicomic
Gwilym Jones

:            Enter Caliban, with a burden of wood;            a noise of thunder heard. All the infections that the sun sucks up From bogs, fens, flats, on Prosper fall, and make him By inchmeal a disease! His spirits hear me, And yet I needs must curse. (2

in Shakespeare’s storms
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Stephen Orgel

over our relation to nature is related to Prospero’s implied debate with Caliban: what is our relation to newly discovered lands and their inhabitants – do they become ours, or have they an integrity that must be respected? Is the New World an extension of ourselves, or is it The Other? These are not simply literary questions, they are major legal issues in the age: what legal

in Spectacular Performances
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Robert Lanier Reid

adoption of allegory. As Frank Kermode noted long ago, while Ariel charms us with adumbrations of the Keatsian ‘music with no sound’, Caliban keeps us in touch with the vulgar fundament. It is the same grounding offered to Hamlet by the gravedigger, who in revisiting Yorick’s riotous body-humbling foolery restores Hamlet’s most morally reliable self. For most of the audience (but

in Renaissance psychologies
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Final vistas of Spenser and Shakespeare
Robert Lanier Reid

. The whole piece, … permeated with Christian feeling, … has been interpreted as a Mystery play in which Prospero, if not the Deity, is ‘the hierophant or initiating priest’ in a rite of purification which the Court party must willy-nilly undergo .… Caliban … becomes the Monster to be overcome, and Miranda Wisdom, the Celestial

in Renaissance psychologies
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Stephen Orgel

’s orders. What Prospero has is not magical power, but education, the liberal arts (literally, arts appropriate to a free man or gentleman); in short, the knowledge of how to keep Ariel and his army of spirits in servitude. It is a knowledge that works much less successfully on Prospero’s other servant, Caliban, no doubt because he deals with the more prosaic daily tasks of providing

in Spectacular Performances
Transnational versions of cross-class desire in Cardenio and Mujeres y criados
Barbara Fuchs

recited Caliban’s lines from The Tempest describing the island: Be not afeard; the isle is full of noises, Sounds and sweet airs, that give delight and hurt not. Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments Will hum about mine

in Transnational connections in early modern theatre