in 1625. One emblem from that year figured the marriage as the
entwining of the rose and the fleur-de-lis.
21 seraph’s] referring to one of the Seraphim, biblical creatures with six wings (see
23 Parnassus hill] in classical mythology thought to be a source of poetic inspiration.
29 Charlemagne] founder of the CarolingianEmpire. Here, a figure for Charles I.
33–4] Charles II was crowned King of Scotland on 1 January 1651.
34 His grandsire’s] referring to James VI of Scotland and I of England; Charles II’s
p aternal grandfather.
power and authority over vast, Western territories. However, the CarolingianEmpire (like the Merovingian Empire before it) did not long survive its founder. It disintegrated in all but name soon after Charlemagne’s death.
The demise of the CarolingianEmpire was quickened by new waves of destructive migrations. Magyar, Viking and Arab assaults threatened to bring chaos to the Far West in the eighth and ninth centuries – as the Goths had done half a millennium earlier. But the CarolingianEmpire lacked a strong imperial centre. Although Charlemagne had