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. This abuse did not represent a failure of the system but was endemic to it; as Ryan observes, ‘abuse occurred in the Institutions’ and ‘the Institutions in themselves were abusive’.3 Likewise, the three reports on the failure of the Catholic Church to adequately confront the sexual abuse of children by some of its priests, along with the testimony of their victims, have thoroughly discredited the Irish Catholic Church as an authority on human sexuality.4 Throughout the twentieth century, as Ursula Barry and Clair Wills note, ‘the Catholic Church in Ireland played a

in Impure thoughts
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McGahern’s personal and detached reflections

rural to urban society and the decline in the importance of the Catholic Church in everyday life. McGahern reveals what it was like to make love and have sex in Ireland during the shift from a Catholic culture of selfdenial to a modern, urban, cosmopolitan culture of self-fulfilment and self-indulgence. love and sex  111 It is possible to think of McGahern as one of the major chroniclers of cultural change in twentieth-century Ireland. However, while he accepted this description of himself, he emphasised that he was not trying to give an objective, detached

in John McGahern
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Church and state in The Bell

, the Roman Catholic Church and the Irish state. O’Faoláin identified this as the case when he reflected on his six years as editor of The Bell between 1940 and 1946: In the days of The Bell I was fully integrated because I was on the attack. I had accepted responsibility as a citizen and thought of myself as speaking for a great silent majority … I found a silent minority which in time became more numerous. Life in Ireland has changed completely since those days – not, to be sure, because of liberals like myself, but, inevitably, with the changing quality of life

in Rebel by vocation
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Spanish Romanticism’, examines the representation of ritual violence, as sanctioned by the Catholic Church, in English and Spanish pictorial and literary texts between 1796 and 1834. Taking a passage from Maturin’s Melmoth the Wanderer as a key reference point, Curbet explores how Gothic writing manages to offer an Enlightenment intellectual perspective on sacrificial acts whilst drawing the reader into

in European Gothic
Marie Helena Loughlin

spiritual and political authority of the Roman Catholic Church, English Protestant reformists often seized on sodomy as a highly charged and emotive anti-papal discourse, with female homoerotic sexual acts sometimes appearing as well. Perhaps the most famous of these reformists, the playwright, bishop and controversialist John Bale, attacked Catholicism’s mandatory ecclesiastical celibacy as a trigger and veil for all kinds of sexual excesses; he claimed, as many reformists did, that Catholic celibacy for priests and other religious was unnatural, and encouraged men and

in Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550–1735

with Christ. 1 Caroline Walker Bynum, Wonderful Blood (2007) The wounded body is a leitmotif of the Gothic novel and central icon of the Roman Catholic Church, which has perpetuated images of crucifixion, martyred saints, bleeding statues and mystic stigmatics. Sacred art depicts an iconography of suffering

in Dangerous bodies
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A spirited exchange 1760-1960
Editor: Avril Horner

The essays in this book demonstrate the importance of translation and European writing in the development of the Gothic novel. Cross-cultural exchanges occurred with the translation of novels by English writers into French. The book first situates works by British writers and American writers within a European context and legacy. Next, it offers readings of less-known works by Gothic authors. The book introduces the reader to a range of neglected, albeit influential, European Gothic texts which originated in Russian, Spanish, French and German. It argues that the level of ideological manipulation, which occurred as texts were translated, mistranslated, appropriated, misappropriated, altered and adapted from one language to another, was so considerable and so systematic that generic mutations were occasioned. The book suggests that Matthew Lewis's The Monk offers a few models of femininity, all deriving from and intended to disrupt, previous literary representations. It focuses on the automatic and the systematic in Charles Maturin's work in relation to Denis Diderot's contemporary philosophical conceptualizations of consciousness and identity. Gothic treacheries are dealt with through Samuel Coleridge's analysis of misappropriation of Friedrich Schiller's Die Rauber. The book also discusses the representations of ritual violence, as sanctioned by the Catholic Church, in English and Spanish pictorial and literary texts between 1796 and 1834. It talks about the Arabesque narrative technique of embedding tales within tales to create a maze in which even the storyteller becomes lost, reflecting the Eastern notion that the created is more important than the creator.

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Treason and betrayal in six modern Irish novels

This book argues that modern Irish history encompasses a deep-seated fear of betrayal, and that this fear has been especially prevalent throughout Irish society since the revolutionary period at the outset of the twentieth century. The author goes on to argue that the novel is the literary form most apt for the exploration of betrayal in its social, political and psychological dimensions. The significance of this thesis comes into focus in terms of a number of recent developments – most notably, the economic downturn (and the political and civic betrayals implicated therein) and revelations of the Catholic Church’s failure in its pastoral mission. As many observers note, such developments have brought the language of betrayal to the forefront of contemporary Irish life. After an introductory section in which he considers betrayal from a variety of religious, psychological and literary perspectives, Gerry Smyth goes on to analyse the Irish experience of betrayal: firstly through a case study of one of the country’s most beloved legends – Deirdre of the Sorrows; and secondly, through extended discussion of six powerful Irish novels in which ideas of betrayal feature centrally - from adultery in James Joyce’s Ulysses, touting in Liam O’Flaherty’s The Informer and spying Elizabeth Bowen’s The Heat of the Day, through to writing itself in Francis Stuart’s Black List, Section H, murder in Eugene McCabe’s Death and Nightingales and child abuse in Anne Enright’s The Gathering (2007). This book offers a powerful analysis of modern Irish history as regarded from the perspective of some its most incisive minds.

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Protestant readings of the Whore of Babylon in early modern England, c.1580–1625

’s painstaking detail also revealed the identity and workings of their greatest enemy, the Roman Catholic Church. 2 Martin Luther declared the Whore’s Roman Catholic identity by including a woodcut depicting her in the papal tiara in his 1522 New Testament and, as this interpretation gained credibility among reformers on the continent, it accrued similar respect and popularity in England

in Biblical women in early modern literary culture 1550–1700
The Albigenses as historical novel

persecuting the heretics, Pope Innocent III launched a series of crusades against the heretics that endured for twenty years (1209–29). Even with the end of the Crusade itself, however, troubles between the Catholic Church and surviving Cathars continued for several more decades. An obvious continuation of the investigation of religious strife begun in Women and Melmoth, The Albigenses

in Charles Robert Maturin and the haunting of Irish Romantic fiction