ramifications of religious fundamentalism. Inter
alia he interviewed ‘born-again’ Christians, looked at the careers of
The documentary diaries
Jim and Tammy Bakker, and the pursuit of money under the guise
of requesting religious donations. In a later film Celibacy, Antony investigated the whole question of celibacy for ordained clergy in the
Catholicchurch. In his opinion the thousand year-old doctrine had
parallels in the Church’s attack on Galileo, who argued the earth went
round the sun, not vice versa. Eventually the church came round to
Fernando Gabriel Pagnoni Berns and Emiliano Aguilar
both films tap into social anxieties about religion and justice following their own social and cultural contexts.
The biblical-procedural film: looking for justice in an unjust world
For centuries, the Roman CatholicChurch withstood all the currents of change in history and maintained a closely shielded orthodoxy which has always served as the centre of all Christianity. Currently, this orthodoxy is battling one of its greatest challenges: a diminished commitment to the Church. ‘Pupils, families and teachers live in the cultural noise and traffic of the twenty
Costa-Gavras and microhistoriography: the case of Amen. (2002)
Homer B. Pettey
narrative, and imagistically providing filmic discovery of the atrocities of Nazism and the complicity of the Roman CatholicChurch. His intention was not to film the play, but rather to present a microhistory of the Final Solution. Unlike in the play, Pope Pius XII is a background figure, since Costa-Gavras desires another form of history: not institutional, not a grand narrative, but a history that comes about through visual enactment of personal reactions. In this effort to combine narrative and image, Costa-Gavras interprets the conflicting political and theological
suffered by Ramón. Antena 3 defended its decision to run the
controversial footage given its ‘indudable importancia social’
( El Mundo , 6 March 1998), despite ferocious attacks from
Ramón’s family, television viewers’ associations and
Spain’s CatholicChurch. Also, shortly afterwards, in an effort to
decriminalise assisted suicide and protect the friends who had helped him,
many thousands of Spaniards signed a national DMD
other religious institutions such as the CatholicChurch and that, while figures and pockets of religious authority do exist, Islam’s structures are not routinely built in a hierarchical manner, and thus, with some exceptions, no single person has the moral authority to establish who is or is not to be considered a Muslim. Hence, while queer Muslims may be often castigated as sinners or apostates by those subscribing to mainstream heteropatriarchal Islamicate values, their level of identification, or disidentification, with their faith is a matter that concerns their
religious faithful not descended from the 1980s Moral Majority – according to Melanie J. Wright, ‘whilst Gibson belongs to a traditionalist Catholicchurch, the film found popularity with mainstream Catholics, Protestants, and other Christians’ ( 2008 : 168). Furthermore, it does indicate the monetary power held by those adhering to a faith-based worldview following a period of perceived social secularisation.
And even this cultural moment, this film particularly, still has political resonances. According to entertainment journalist James Ulmer, Steve Bannon, the far
Demonising controversy in The Last Temptation of Christ and The
Passion of the Christ
. He is always what the other side needs him to be. Perhaps if we can learn to see this, and learn from it, we can see the emptiness of the rhetoric that employs him.
1 The term ‘Culture Wars’ was first used by James Davison Hunter in 1991 in his book Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America .
2 Vatican II sought to bring the CatholicChurch into the modern world, making several radical, and unpopular, changes such as changing the language of the Mass from Latin to the vernacular, a focus on active participation and a change in the Church
totalitarian regimes and
repressive military dictatorships. Although it is important to emphasise
that these repressive military regimes, such as the Franco regime, changed
dramatically over their years of rule, under totalitarian regimes or
military dictatorships almost no single physical or symbolic space can
escape their omnipotence. For instance, right until the death of Franco in
1975, one could neither criticise the Catholic
musica ) and proscribed from Catholicchurch music. Within
Britten’s frequently employed key of G minor, the form it usually
takes is that of C– F sharp, leaving it a semitone away from full
tonic resolution and acting as a precise musical parallel to Owen’s
use of half-rhyme in ‘Strange Meeting’.
Jarman’s task, in which I believe he largely succeeded,
was to be responsive to these tensions and dissonances without inertly and
Hollywood, Christians and the American Culture Wars
Karen Patricia Heath
traditionalist who seeks to restore the older customs and rites of the CatholicChurch, prior to the landmark reforms of Vatican II (for instance, Gibson holds to the Latin Mass, rather than the use of vernacular languages). In a political sense, Gibson might best be defined as a staunch conservative who believes that debates over Passion represent only one front in a broader Culture War, i.e. an ideological battle between, in his view, a (fundamentally wrong) secular left, and a morally correct right.
Gibson sought to conceptualise the American cultural landscape in the