obey our teachers, since a Christian can only do wrong by not honouring or serving those parents adequately. And that is why this is taught in the first commandment of the second table, as the measure and rule of all others. What would become of any Catholic who ignored part of the symbol in which the faith of his or her mother was inscribed? Indeed, the words ‘I believe in the Catholicchurch’ represent a symbol everywhere! I do not think that the lord bishops are displeased by the fact that the Christian faith is drawn from the quiddity of the church, because they
England [in the late fourteenth century] and left clues to the greatest treasure in history in their wake. The Church will do anything to keep these secrets and two reluctant treasure hunters are drawn into the adventure of a lifetime. Shot on location with actual unexplained sites and artifacts, The American Templars will excite the mind and raise questions about faith, history, and the things that unite us all. 32
The film’s convoluted plot then manages to combine the ongoing clergy abuse scandal involving the CatholicChurch with theories about figures who have
The well- travelled tyrant and some of his unchecked baggage
International Work of Reference on
the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the
CatholicChurch , ed. Charles G. Hebermann et al., 16
vols (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1914 ), s.v. Scythopolis.
‘He was no lesser than Alexander, or
if so, it was by very little
Could it thus be proposed that the Fool's criticism of the attack against the Jews by the king and his adviser was sanctioned in its turn as part of the Reformation's struggle against the dominant CatholicChurch? Lastly, the perceived danger of the Fool's response to the mandate against the Jews in Ein Schön Purim Shpil is attested to by the burning of a later version of its text and the banned performance of all such plays by Jewish authorities in the early eighteenth century – perhaps as much for its
1000 the Norse of Iceland had become Christian and were themselves, like their fifteenth-century Italian successors, given to proselytising. But if Loewen understates the influence of medieval Christianity here, he overstates the influence of Renaissance Christianity elsewhere:
Perhaps the most far-reaching impact of Columbus’s findings was on European Christianity. In 1492 all of Europe was in the grip of the CatholicChurch. As the Encyclopedia Larousse puts it, before America, ‘Europe was virtually incapable of self-criticism’. After America, Europe
, too.45 She greets Theodora with an invocation to God (191–4), and appears to know the rules of the CatholicChurch in great detail (see below). That the old woman is playing
a role in order to reach her aim can be deduced from her behaviour
towards the young man. In the earlier conversation, her words are
not marked by Christian diction.
Character depiction and direct discourse
The trick the hag uses to arouse Theodora’s interest is to pretend that she is the one in need of help and seeking Theodora’s
comfort – and the saint walks into the trap: ‘sit don
him – by death, if necessary. 66 Such sentiments are consistent with his conviction that he was obligated – and prepared – to die to defend the res publica, the faith, and the unity of the Roman church. 67 The justifications he prepared to defend his actions at Anagni provide access to his ideas about the society in which he lived and his obligations to it and to God. He repeatedly invoked the organic metaphor, but in his apologies it was the body of the universal Catholicchurch to which he appealed, rather than the body of the kingdom. Echoing declarations
compatibility seems to suggest a closer approximation and therefore to imply an analogy with Protestantism and Catholicism.
Anti-Catholic discourse would, of course, have identified the Romans with the CatholicChurch and Catherine's Christianity with Puritan virtue and stricter religious performance. Yet, given the historical source, the tyranny of Maximin represents paganism, and St Catherine persecuted Christianity; the depiction of the ‘Roman Church’ could very well be read allegorically as a critique of hypocritical
Alexandria, Minnesota. Today, indeed, the town has a Runestone Park as well as a Runestone Museum whose exhibits include, according to the website, ‘the world famous Kensington Runestone’. 38 There is a Viking Plaza mall, a Catholicchurch named ‘Our Lady of the Runestone’, and an enormous statue of Big Ole, a horned-helmeted Viking. A bit up the road, in Fergus Falls, the Viking Café serves a ‘Vik Vuffin’ sandwich.
A lot of this enthusiasm, I suspect, is tongue-in-cheek. But as with that Incan dog, it also has an unsettling quality, which is not simply the extent of
both the pure and impure; animals brought into the ark sevenfold are the
clean, enjoying the seven-fold gift of the spirit, while those included
in pairs signify the duplicity of the spiritually unclean, the false
Christians who participate in the sacraments of the CatholicChurch.
These may even desire salvation, and outwardly appear on the way to
redemption, but of them James 1:8 warns: vir duplex animo inconstans