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Lindsay J. Proudfoot and Dianne P. Hall

religion in the eyes of contemporary (and later) observers, which in turn had profound consequences for religious discourse in the country. During the latter part of the nineteenth century and beyond, Australia’s main Christian denominations were assumed to be broadly synonymous with different ethno-national elements in the British and Irish migration stream. The Catholic Church had St Patrick’s Day

in Imperial spaces
Thomas Nast and the colonisation of the American West
Fiona Halloran

in the nineteenth century came from families with English or Scandinavian ethnic heritage. As a result, Mormons tend to seem obviously ‘white’ to modern eyes. But in the nineteenth century that racial identity appeared far less clear. As Paul Reeve has shown, American popular culture routinely portrayed Mormons as non-white. Nast joined this tradition when he linked Mormons to Native Americans and to the Catholic Church. 33 The link to Native Americans stemmed in part from

in Comic empires
Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika
Michael Jennings

counsel’ with the aim of ‘attaining a common policy’ to present to government. 16 In 1934, the Tanganyika Mission Council (TMC) was established as the fulfilment of these ambitions. Its membership consisted of the main Protestant missions working in Tanganyika, thereby frustrating efforts to create a truly pan-mission representative organisation. The Roman Catholic Church had declined to participate

in Beyond the state
Andrekos Varnava and Casey Raeside

, a band of cloth that sits on the shoulders and back of the neck and hangs down on both sides, which is also worn by the same western Christian denominations as the alb . Cummings linked the enosis cause of the Cypriot Eastern Orthodox Church with that of the Anglican Church, even though Griffiths was a non-conformist. To the contemporary readership the outer garments would be readily recognised as representing the state religion of the Church of England. During 1955 the Church of England, Catholic Church, and the Council of Churches had become vocal in

in Comic empires
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Lindsay J. Proudfoot and Dianne P. Hall

Chronicle in Sydney in the 1840s; Patrick Francis Moran, polemicist and Cullenite prince of the Catholic Church in Australia by the turn of the century; and the perceptive provincial Scottish druggist, W. F. Douglas, each encountered a personal Australia that was as much a subjective construction of their own imagination as an objective material reality. So too did every other Irish and Scottish emigrant

in Imperial spaces
Britons and Irish imperial culture in nineteenth-century India
Barry Crosbie

with low-caste pariahs threatened to raise money of their own to build a separate Catholic church in Madras if something were not done to alleviate the problem. What alarmed Indian Catholics most was that it seemed to them as if O’Connor and his Irish priests were somehow trying to blur the lines between high- and low-caste Indian Catholics in Madras. O’Connor, however, was resolute and insisted that

in The cultural construction of the British world
Alan Bairner

, according to Holt, ‘the rural isolation that had kept much of Ireland out of the grip of British culture was being eroded’. 38 Furthermore, the claims of more disciplined British games had received support from the Catholic Church, the leaders of which had been increasingly dismayed by the excessive behaviour which frequently accompanied traditional Irish pastimes and festivals. As Elizabeth

in ‘An Irish Empire’?
Westerners and Chinese Christians in Chongqing, 1870s-1900
Judith Wyman

the attacks directed specifically against the Catholic Church had more to do with local power struggles than with religious issues. In Dazu, the Catholic Church was attacked when it invaded a political sphere controlled by the Gelaohui. Although Catholics had been living in Dazu without incident since the 1780s, 56 violence broke out in 1886 when the Catholic mission built an imposing church in the middle of the main market town, Longshuizhen, which towered over the two main temples. Contemporary Chinese reports noted that

in New frontiers
Emmanuelle Sibeud

position in line with current efforts to secularize French society. This positivist science of religions was part of the larger quest for a modern, secular and republican science of humanity fostered by the passionate debates surrounding the Dreyfus affair and the final split, in 1905, between the Republican State and the Catholic Church. In this context religions of ‘uncivilized

in Ordering Africa
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Prelude to decolonisation? The inter-war empire revisited
Martin Thomas

the reactionary conservatism already rooted among elements of the French right, the Catholic church, pro-natalist organisations and colonial settler groups, as well as the less clearly articulated hostility among the wider French public to colonial immigration and greater democratic rights for women. The more profound societal divisions and the class and racial prejudice laid bare by the perceived threat of Popular Front

in The French empire between the wars