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Mel Bunce

out of context or manipulated; and at the other end is news content that is 100 per cent false and is designed to deceive (see also Tandoc et al ., 2018 ). None of these different types of fake news are new. The news media have long published exaggerations, false information, propaganda and conspiracy theories, presenting them as truth. In the 1830s, for example, New York Post published a series of articles claiming that life had been found on the moon ( Tworek and Hamilton, 2018 ). Staged and fabricated content was also common during the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs