out of context or manipulated; and at the other end is news
content that is 100 per cent false and is designed to deceive (see also Tandoc et al ., 2018 ). None of these different types of fake news are new. The news media have long published
exaggerations, false information, propaganda and conspiracytheories, presenting them as truth.
In the 1830s, for example, New York Post published a series of articles
claiming that life had been found on the moon ( Tworek and
Hamilton, 2018 ). Staged and fabricated content was also common during the
A war of no compromises and compromises during war
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter
was dismissed by
prominent contemporary thinkers.62
A complementary explanation for the consistency of the Islamist
demand for the annihilation of Israel is a convergence of historical and
meta-historical perspectives on the conflict, which is unique to this
worldview. The historical perspectives are the lack of an experience
of defeat and the revolutionary-oppositional nature of Islamist movements. The meta-historical perspectives are the conspiracytheory of the
Islamism, Zionism and Israel
‘cultural attack’ and the anti-Semitism of the Islamist worldview
which amplifies the noise, even to the
exclusion of the signal.
The roles of the KGB and its
successor agencies, particularly the Federal Security Service (FSB),
offer a broad canvas of historical and ideological conflict, political
and commercial intrigue, sex and glamour and accusations of mass murder
and international assassination. 58
process, he writes, is one ‘which habitually resorts to decision-making and enforcement
procedures outside as well as inside those publicly sanctioned by law and society’. Deep
political analysis, because its object is shrouded in secrecy, ‘enlarges traditional structuralist analysis to include indeterminacies analogous to those which are studied in chaos
Too often, consideration of the political netherworld is dismissed as conspiracytheory. But the fact that there is an abundant supply of simplistic conspiracytheories
cannot be an excuse for not
Film, television drama and the Northern Irish conflict in Britain
to his death as a result of an Irish National Liberation Army (INLA)
car-bomb in 1979. Neave was widely credited with masterminding
the election of Margaret Thatcher as Conservative leader and, due
to his secret service connections, his name was also associated with
an alleged plot to overthrow Harold Wilson’s Labour government
(alluded to, for example, in Ken Loach’s 1990 film Hidden Agenda in
which the political conspirator Alec Nevin represents a thinly disguised
version of Neave). Utopia, however, draws upon rather different conspiracytheories relating to
both 23 March 2004.
9/11 Commission Report, paras 6.4–6.5.
G. Arney, ‘US “planned attack on Taleban”’, BBC News, 18 September 2001; J.
Steele, E. MacAskill, R. Norton-Taylor and E. Harriman, ‘Threat of US strikes passed
to Taliban weeks before NY attack’, Guardian, 22 September 2001; D. Cave, ‘The
conspiracytheory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002, http://dir.salon.com, accessed
9 November 2010.
D. Cave, ‘The conspiracytheory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002, http://dir.salon.
com, accessed 9 November 2010.
J-C. Brisard and D. Corn, ‘Debating September 11’, The
thus links the Sabbath goy with Zionist strategy,
motivated by Islamophobia, xenophobia and anti-Communism, all clear and
pure Israeli interests.98 All this, claim the supporters of the Sabbath goy conspiracytheory, rang ‘very sensibly and logically’ true and led to a ‘clear’
Israeli/Jewish involvement in the Oslo massacre. In fact, as in many other
calamities, and as quoted by Günther Jikeli and the Kantor Center at Tel Aviv
University, ‘pure logic’ prevails that proves all the above. For example, 9/11
was not committed by Muslims (this is a ‘bullshit’ explanation
becoming a conspiracytheory in which the back-stage is always the one
behind that which is being researched (cf. Dahl’s (1989: 272) argument
regarding the testing of theories of minority domination), this study has
sought to distinguish the two ‘stages’ of the parties on the basis of the primary orientation of the party literature. Externally oriented literature such
as election and party programmes, as well as brochures, were taken as indicators of the front-stage, whereas internally oriented literature such as party
papers were seen as indicators of the back-stage.
Brief presentation of political parties in terms of ideology
centre of the
Right–Left axis, thereby abandoning some features which had previously
been key – the creation of Greater Croatia, xenophobia and conspiracytheories – while still trying to attract Right-wing voters by focusing on welfare
chauvinism and populist antiparty sentiment. However, with the new
leadership, the party returned to its previous political profile and style.
As for economic issues and party’s stance towards welfare chauvinism, the
programme is a mixture of Leftist and Rightist concepts. Small private firms
are seen as the basis of economic
a direction that
left them perplexed or hostile. His intense logic was perhaps less of a problem than
his embrace of conspiracytheories. Even those who were his political or personal
friends could be embarrassed by some of his utterances. His austere manner hid a
shy and loyal individual, but probably few recognised those characteristics. What
does tend to unite friends and foe alike is the recognition that he was an outstanding
orator, one of the best of his generation.