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Mel Bunce

out of context or manipulated; and at the other end is news content that is 100 per cent false and is designed to deceive (see also Tandoc et al ., 2018 ). None of these different types of fake news are new. The news media have long published exaggerations, false information, propaganda and conspiracy theories, presenting them as truth. In the 1830s, for example, New York Post published a series of articles claiming that life had been found on the moon ( Tworek and Hamilton, 2018 ). Staged and fabricated content was also common during the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A war of no compromises and compromises during war
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

was dismissed by prominent contemporary thinkers.62 A complementary explanation for the consistency of the Islamist demand for the annihilation of Israel is a convergence of historical and meta-historical perspectives on the conflict, which is unique to this worldview. The historical perspectives are the lack of an experience of defeat and the revolutionary-oppositional nature of Islamist movements. The meta-historical perspectives are the conspiracy theory of the Islamism, Zionism and Israel 41 ‘cultural attack’ and the anti-Semitism of the Islamist worldview

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Open Access (free)
The state of surprise
Andrew Monaghan

which amplifies the noise, even to the exclusion of the signal. Conspiracy theories The roles of the KGB and its successor agencies, particularly the Federal Security Service (FSB), offer a broad canvas of historical and ideological conflict, political and commercial intrigue, sex and glamour and accusations of mass murder and international assassination. 58

in The new politics of Russia
Abstract only
A civilian airliner in the firing line
Kees van der Pijl

 War process, he writes, is one ‘which habitually resorts to decision-​making and enforcement procedures outside as well as inside those publicly sanctioned by law and society’. Deep political analysis, because its object is shrouded in secrecy, ‘enlarges traditional structuralist analysis to include indeterminacies analogous to those which are studied in chaos theory’.7 Too often, consideration of the political netherworld is dismissed as conspiracy theory. But the fact that there is an abundant supply of simplistic conspiracy theories cannot be an excuse for not

in Flight MH17, Ukraine and the new Cold War
Film, television drama and the Northern Irish conflict in Britain
John Hill

referring to his death as a result of an Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) car-bomb in 1979. Neave was widely credited with masterminding the election of Margaret Thatcher as Conservative leader and, due to his secret service connections, his name was also associated with an alleged plot to overthrow Harold Wilson’s Labour government (alluded to, for example, in Ken Loach’s 1990 film Hidden Agenda in which the political conspirator Alec Nevin represents a thinly disguised version of Neave). Utopia, however, draws upon rather different conspiracy theories relating to

in The Northern Ireland Troubles in Britain
Steven Kettell

, both 23 March 2004. 9/11 Commission Report, paras 6.4–6.5. G. Arney, ‘US “planned attack on Taleban”’, BBC News, 18 September 2001; J. Steele, E. MacAskill, R. Norton-Taylor and E. Harriman, ‘Threat of US strikes passed to Taliban weeks before NY attack’, Guardian, 22 September 2001; D. Cave, ‘The conspiracy theory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002, http://dir.salon.com, accessed 9 November 2010. D. Cave, ‘The conspiracy theory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002, http://dir.salon. com, accessed 9 November 2010. J-C. Brisard and D. Corn, ‘Debating September 11’, The

in New Labour and the new world order
Abstract only
The Holocaust as a yardstick
Amikam Nachmani

thus links the Sabbath goy with Zionist strategy, motivated by Islamophobia, xenophobia and anti-Communism, all clear and pure Israeli interests.98 All this, claim the supporters of the Sabbath goy conspiracy theory, rang ‘very sensibly and logically’ true and led to a ‘clear’ Israeli/Jewish involvement in the Oslo massacre. In fact, as in many other calamities, and as quoted by Günther Jikeli and the Kantor Center at Tel Aviv University, ‘pure logic’ prevails that proves all the above. For example, 9/11 was not committed by Muslims (this is a ‘bullshit’ explanation

in Haunted presents
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

becoming a conspiracy theory in which the back-stage is always the one behind that which is being researched (cf. Dahl’s (1989: 272) argument regarding the testing of theories of minority domination), this study has sought to distinguish the two ‘stages’ of the parties on the basis of the primary orientation of the party literature. Externally oriented literature such as election and party programmes, as well as brochures, were taken as indicators of the front-stage, whereas internally oriented literature such as party papers were seen as indicators of the back-stage. In

in The ideology of the extreme right
Brief presentation of political parties in terms of ideology
Věra Stojarová

centre of the Right–Left axis, thereby abandoning some features which had previously been key – the creation of Greater Croatia, xenophobia and conspiracy theories – while still trying to attract Right-wing voters by focusing on welfare chauvinism and populist antiparty sentiment. However, with the new leadership, the party returned to its previous political profile and style. As for economic issues and party’s stance towards welfare chauvinism, the programme is a mixture of Leftist and Rightist concepts. Small private firms are seen as the basis of economic

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Philip Norton

a direction that left them perplexed or hostile. His intense logic was perhaps less of a problem than his embrace of conspiracy theories. Even those who were his political or personal friends could be embarrassed by some of his utterances. His austere manner hid a shy and loyal individual, but probably few recognised those characteristics. What does tend to unite friends and foe alike is the recognition that he was an outstanding orator, one of the best of his generation.

in Conservative orators from Baldwin to Cameron