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Mel Bunce

out of context or manipulated; and at the other end is news content that is 100 per cent false and is designed to deceive (see also Tandoc et al ., 2018 ). None of these different types of fake news are new. The news media have long published exaggerations, false information, propaganda and conspiracy theories, presenting them as truth. In the 1830s, for example, New York Post published a series of articles claiming that life had been found on the moon ( Tworek and Hamilton, 2018 ). Staged and fabricated content was also common during the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
A civilian airliner in the firing line
Kees van der Pijl

 War process, he writes, is one ‘which habitually resorts to decision-​making and enforcement procedures outside as well as inside those publicly sanctioned by law and society’. Deep political analysis, because its object is shrouded in secrecy, ‘enlarges traditional structuralist analysis to include indeterminacies analogous to those which are studied in chaos theory’.7 Too often, consideration of the political netherworld is dismissed as conspiracy theory. But the fact that there is an abundant supply of simplistic conspiracy theories cannot be an excuse for not

in Flight MH17, Ukraine and the new Cold War
The role of news and online blogs in constructing political personas
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

, while rumours and conspiracy theories flourished. Opposing political sides had merged into opposing accounts of reality. In the context of pro-Gbagbo websites, the narrative often boiled down to depicting Ouattara as a French neo-colonial puppet, and a Gbagbo as an anti-colonial hero. 3 Accordingly, the imagined relationship with the former colonial power France, and the international community at large, became a central idiom in the construction of the images of the opposing protagonists of the Ivoirian post-electoral crisis. The internet, as

in Images of Africa
Dean J. White

because the victims were black, or because of some conspiracy theory that the Government supported the RPF, or even because it did not care. Britain failed to White.indd 156 10/6/2014 5:35:41 PM The responsible bystander? 157 stop the killing in Rwanda because the Government, public and media genuinely did not recognise the genocide for what it was and did not have the capability to stop it. In the case of Rwanda, Britain was not the indifferent bystander or the bystander who did too little; throughout the crisis Britain was simply the ignorant bystander. We must

in The ignorant bystander?
Cillian McGrattan

fourteen civil rights protesters on an anti-internment march, was that the atrocity was planned at and directed from a high level of the British Government and/or military. Although the finding of the Bloody Sunday Inquiry, chaired by Lord Saville (1998–2010), was that the soldiers acted without direction, the conspiracy theory has been kept alive because of the massive amount of evidence that was collected. The editorial of History/ Ireland, for example, claimed that the inquiry has generated ‘a massive and invaluable historical archive that will allow historians now

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Dean J. White

regional war raged for a number of years after the events of 1994. And finally, the British Government was clearly sensitive about its relationship with the Government of Uganda. In this period there was an embargo on selling lethal equipment to Uganda and in 1991 an approach from the Ugandan Government to provide weapons training to game rangers was recorded in a confidential FCO document as having been rejected ‘on the grounds that it might be seen as UK connivance in the training of guerrillas’.44 As well as motive, the conspiracy theory also ignores the actual

in The ignorant bystander?
Democracy in Bolivarian Venezuela in comparative perspective
Barry Cannon . Accessed 6 August 2003, pp. 4–5). Furthermore there have been improvements recently, with the 2006 presidential elections having an abstention rate of approximately 25%, an historic low for Venezuela in recent times. 42 Haussman, R. and Rigobon, R., 2004. En busca del cisne negro: Análisis de la evidencia estadística sobre fraude electoral en Venezuela . Available from: . Accessed 17 April 2008. 43 Weisbrot, M., Rosnick, D., and Tucker, T., 2004, Briefing Paper: Black Swans, Conspiracy

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian revolution
Steven Kettell

, both 23 March 2004. 9/11 Commission Report, paras 6.4–6.5. G. Arney, ‘US “planned attack on Taleban”’, BBC News, 18 September 2001; J. Steele, E. MacAskill, R. Norton-Taylor and E. Harriman, ‘Threat of US strikes passed to Taliban weeks before NY attack’, Guardian, 22 September 2001; D. Cave, ‘The conspiracy theory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002,, accessed 9 November 2010. D. Cave, ‘The conspiracy theory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002, com, accessed 9 November 2010. J-C. Brisard and D. Corn, ‘Debating September 11’, The

in New Labour and the new world order
The case of the Timisoara revolutionaries
Anca Mihaela Pusca

repression, conspiracy theories around this issue abound. People want concrete answers and unitary enemies to point the finger at. Unfortunately, they may not be so easily identifiable: the secret structure of the Securitatea, and the broken chain of command, made certain decisions untraceable and the identification of “the guilty” difficult. The unresolved issue of the disappeared bodies continues to hang as a deep disappointment above the head of the Romanian Revolution. The fact that only a handful of people have been prosecuted for these murders has left much of the

in Revolution, democratic transition and disillusionment
Romania, seventeen years into its transition
Anca Mihaela Pusca

presidential call inviting him to lead such a commission. Vladimir Tismaneanu was. While the latter had the courtesy to invite Goma to become a member of the researching team, Goma refused to openly collaborate and sought to discredit Tismaneanu by publishing a series of confidential correspondence, and was thus expelled from the Commission. What some call political games and others petty games, form a very difficult to manage decision-making web in which everything is questioned, likely to be turned into a conspiracy theory and feed directly into the already high level of

in Revolution, democratic transition and disillusionment