out of context or manipulated; and at the other end is news
content that is 100 per cent false and is designed to deceive (see also Tandoc et al ., 2018 ). None of these different types of fake news are new. The news media have long published
exaggerations, false information, propaganda and conspiracytheories, presenting them as truth.
In the 1830s, for example, New York Post published a series of articles
claiming that life had been found on the moon ( Tworek and
Hamilton, 2018 ). Staged and fabricated content was also common during the
process, he writes, is one ‘which habitually resorts to decision-making and enforcement
procedures outside as well as inside those publicly sanctioned by law and society’. Deep
political analysis, because its object is shrouded in secrecy, ‘enlarges traditional structuralist analysis to include indeterminacies analogous to those which are studied in chaos
Too often, consideration of the political netherworld is dismissed as conspiracytheory. But the fact that there is an abundant supply of simplistic conspiracytheories
cannot be an excuse for not
The role of news and online blogs in constructing political personas
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe
, while rumours and conspiracytheories flourished. Opposing political sides had merged into opposing accounts of reality. In the context of pro-Gbagbo websites, the narrative often boiled down to depicting Ouattara as a French neo-colonial puppet, and a Gbagbo as an anti-colonial hero. 3 Accordingly, the imagined relationship with the former colonial power France, and the international community at large, became a central idiom in the construction of the images of the opposing protagonists of the Ivoirian post-electoral crisis.
The internet, as
because the victims were black, or because of some conspiracytheory that the
Government supported the RPF, or even because it did not care. Britain failed to
10/6/2014 5:35:41 PM
The responsible bystander? 157
stop the killing in Rwanda because the Government, public and media genuinely
did not recognise the genocide for what it was and did not have the capability
to stop it. In the case of Rwanda, Britain was not the indifferent bystander or
the bystander who did too little; throughout the crisis Britain was simply the
ignorant bystander. We must
fourteen civil rights protesters on an anti-internment
march, was that the atrocity was planned at and directed from a high level of
the British Government and/or military. Although the finding of the Bloody
Sunday Inquiry, chaired by Lord Saville (1998–2010), was that the soldiers
acted without direction, the conspiracytheory has been kept alive because of
the massive amount of evidence that was collected. The editorial of History/
Ireland, for example, claimed that the inquiry has generated ‘a massive and
invaluable historical archive that will allow historians now
regional war raged for
a number of years after the events of 1994. And finally, the British Government
was clearly sensitive about its relationship with the Government of Uganda. In
this period there was an embargo on selling lethal equipment to Uganda and in
1991 an approach from the Ugandan Government to provide weapons training
to game rangers was recorded in a confidential FCO document as having been
rejected ‘on the grounds that it might be seen as UK connivance in the training
of guerrillas’.44 As well as motive, the conspiracytheory also ignores the actual
Democracy in Bolivarian Venezuela in comparative perspective
.nd.edu/~kellogg/WPS/294.pdf . Accessed 6 August 2003, pp. 4–5). Furthermore there have been improvements recently, with the 2006 presidential elections having an abstention rate of approximately 25%, an historic low for Venezuela in recent times.
42 Haussman, R. and Rigobon, R., 2004. En busca del cisne negro: Análisis de la evidencia estadística sobre fraude electoral en Venezuela . Available from: www.sumate.org . Accessed 17 April 2008.
43 Weisbrot, M., Rosnick, D., and Tucker, T., 2004, Briefing Paper: Black Swans, Conspiracy
both 23 March 2004.
9/11 Commission Report, paras 6.4–6.5.
G. Arney, ‘US “planned attack on Taleban”’, BBC News, 18 September 2001; J.
Steele, E. MacAskill, R. Norton-Taylor and E. Harriman, ‘Threat of US strikes passed
to Taliban weeks before NY attack’, Guardian, 22 September 2001; D. Cave, ‘The
conspiracytheory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002, http://dir.salon.com, accessed
9 November 2010.
D. Cave, ‘The conspiracytheory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002, http://dir.salon.
com, accessed 9 November 2010.
J-C. Brisard and D. Corn, ‘Debating September 11’, The
repression, conspiracytheories around this issue abound.
People want concrete answers and unitary enemies to point
the finger at. Unfortunately, they may not be so easily identifiable: the secret structure of the Securitatea, and the broken
chain of command, made certain decisions untraceable and
the identification of “the guilty” difficult. The unresolved
issue of the disappeared bodies continues to hang as a deep
disappointment above the head of the Romanian Revolution.
The fact that only a handful of people have been prosecuted
for these murders has left much of the
presidential call inviting him
to lead such a commission. Vladimir Tismaneanu was.
While the latter had the courtesy to invite Goma to become a
member of the researching team, Goma refused to openly
collaborate and sought to discredit Tismaneanu by publishing a series of confidential correspondence, and was thus
expelled from the Commission. What some call political
games and others petty games, form a very difficult to
manage decision-making web in which everything is questioned, likely to be turned into a conspiracytheory and feed
directly into the already high level of