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Ireland in a global world
Series: Irish Society

Migration to and from Ireland is often the subject of definitive claims. During the 1980s, migration from Ireland was most commonly described as a brain drain. Despite the constant flows and counterflows, academic studies tend to focus on just one direction of movement, reflecting dominant concerns at particular points in time. The 1950s and the 1980s are characterized as decades of emigration, the Celtic Tiger era as a period of immigration, and the current recession is manifest as a return to mass emigration. This book addresses the three key themes from a variety of spatial, temporal and theoretical perspectives. The theme of networks is addressed. Transnational loyalist networks acted both to facilitate the speaking tours of loyalist speakers and to re-translate the political meanings and messages being communicated by the speakers. The Irish Catholic Church and specifically its re-working of its traditional pastoral, lobbying and development role within Irish emigrant communities, is discussed. By highlighting three key areas such as motives, institutions and strategies, and support infrastructures, the book suggests that the Irish experience offers a nuanced understanding of the different forms of networks that exist between a state and its diaspora, and shows the importance of working to support the self-organization of the diaspora. Perceptions of belonging both pre- and postmigration encouraged ethnographic research in six Direct Provision asylum accommodation centres across Ireland. Finally, the book provides insights into the intersections between 'migrancy' and other social categories including gender, nationality and class/position in the labour hierarchy.

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Ireland and its relationship with migration
Allen White and Mary Gilmartin

. Angèle Smith 3995 Migrations.qxd:text 10 5/8/13 11:38 Page 10 I NTRODUCTION highlights the dilemmas of belonging for asylum seekers in Ireland. Her chapter is based on ethnographic research in six Direct Provision asylum accommodation centres across Ireland. The legal, social and spatial limbo of asylum seekers forced to live in these Direct Provision centres means they constantly experience a world betwixt and between. Transnational life is frequently a life marked by experiences of simultaneously belonging and non-belonging, belonging to more than one place

in Migrations
Fiona Murphy and Ulrike M. Vieten

Provision, asylum seekers struggle with everyday life in Ireland, even after achieving refugee status. Articulations of belonging are highly connected to these experiences and many research participants continue to point to how their experiences in Direct Provision have negatively impacted on their relationship with Ireland. Examining Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in tandem in the context of asylum seekers’ and refugees’ everyday life experiences shows the plurality of racist practices on the island of Ireland. In Northern Ireland

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
Racism, immigration and the state
Steve Loyal

disappeared from the asylum system. Many are believed to have returned to Dublin and many to be working in the black economy. Overall, notwithstanding the social and juridical division between those arriving before and after the introduction of dispersal and direct provision, asylum seekers have the least entitlement and access to social and material resources of all the groups who live in Irish society. They are the most disempowered group, since they lack the right to work and their access to education and training is severely limited. Their presence marks the nadir of

in The end of Irish history?
Bryan Fanning

other black and ethnic minority communities. For example, the marginalisation experienced by asylum seekers in recent years suggests commonalties with the experiences of Travellers.58 The forms of racism, spatial exclusion and lesser access to services experienced by dispersed asylum seekers were, in many ways, similar to the forms of apartheid historically The legacy of anti-Traveller racism 173 experienced by Travellers. Under direct provision asylum seekers were denied access to various forms of accommodation in the community. As a result of the small amount of

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland