passive and beholden to their male superiors.43 J.J. Lee and Caitriona Clear, in contrast, argue that nuns, like other Irish women, had only limited autonomy in a patriarchal society. According to Clear, nuns were ‘an institutional embodiment of the caring, self-­ sacrificing and essentially subordinate woman, and their existence played a strong part in perpetuating this image’.44 As Magray points out, however, Irish women religious in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were not exclusively marginalised or isolated. Indeed, women often joined convents

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Abstract only

and 1930s utilised a historical connection between women and the land to implement a supposedly ‘native’ patriarchy. According to Síghle Bhreathnach-Lynch, the patriarchal nationalist domination of the feminised Irish landscape in the early twentieth century helped consolidate gender norms, affirming that women were ‘the passive and voiceless embodiment of nature’ who must be controlled by men.10 The regulation of the landscape thus bolstered the new independent and Catholic state seeking to deny most Irish women a significant active or public role.11 Yet the

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950

pray the Divine Office, and many prayed the less physically and temporally onerous Little Office of Our Lady. 38 As a form of liturgical prayer, the Office was not simply the spoken or sung prayer of the Psalms and other readings, but also an act of community which reflected the conscious embodiment of prayer, through the unison of thoughts, movement, breath and time. 39 Prayer throughout the day became more difficult for sisters in active ministries as state requirements for education and health care came to impinge on the horarium. 40 One sister who entered the

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
Abstract only

. Though it acted as the embodiment of divine truths, he did not entirely lay aside patristic and scholastic authorities in his scholarship and teaching. A brief perusal of the material translated in this volume will reveal that the Doctor Evangelicus did not quite advocate a sola Scriptura theology. 37 With Gregory’s death in March 1378, the pressures of papal persecution receded for Wyclif. Shortly afterwards, he must have begun work on his major ecclesiological treatise, On the Church . It is here that he presents his conviction that the

in John Wyclif