Sarukhan’s al-Masri Effendi cartoons in the first half of the
-Masri Effendi was also an image in itself , a caricatured type that had its own characteristics, ways of thought and codes of behaviour, which differed from the ideas it was meant to convey. It also created meaning, and therefore can be addressed as an artistic creation in and of itself, and as a part of a sign-system, which was semi-autonomous with regard to reality. As this chapter will show, in the caricatured world, al-Masri Effendi was also the embodiment of Sarukhan's cosmopolitan perspective, which manifested itself in a partial set of Orientalistic values regarding
transition. Remco Ensel, for instance, has noted how ‘[t]he royal family, which came from the people and stood for the ultimate family, returned in “the body of the people”’ in Wilhelmina's reign.
Henk te Velde notes that Wilhelmina embraced the embodied connection to her subjects, describing herself as ‘ het vleeschgeworden Nederlandsche volkskarakter ’ (‘the fleshly embodiment of the Dutch national character’).
The clothes that
embodiment of what limited independence remained to the Vichy regime.
Preservation of imperial control helped Vichy governments withstand
Germano-Italian pressure for concessions in metropolitan France, and was
pivotal to Vichy’s claim to be more than the mouthpiece of a
defeated nation. The national revolution espoused by the supporters of
Marshal Pétain was enthusiastically endorsed in many regions of the
The importance of cartoons, caricature, and satirical art in imperial
Richard Scully and Andrekos Varnava
of political messages).
Yet even now, while even those most convinced of the way the cartoon can be seen as ‘the embodiment of … Democracy’ are willing to admit that cartoons and cartoonists have had negative impacts on minorities or subaltern groups at times, such instances have generally been subordinated to a Whiggish narrative of liberal-democratic progress (e.g. by the self-confessed ‘free-speech absolutist’ Victor Navasky).
by the conventions of official art, including the affixing of meaning – any meaning – to a pretty girl – any pretty girl’,
seems equally applicable to Sambourne's procession of symbolic beauties, whose role as dignified embodiments of geographical expressions is liable to get obscured by their too-solid corporeality.
Linley Sambourne, ‘Mr. Punch
outside the established structures of Commonwealth societies, these actors were thus better able to shape popular understandings of who best represented Britain overseas and who was most likely to affect positive change in the post-imperial era.
The very idea of imperial expertise and experience was being called into question during this period. As Kothari has shown, the 1960s saw significant changes in the field as colonial administrators were gradually replaced by a new generation of development ‘experts’, the embodiment of a broader process of
Great white hope of the Edwardian imperial romancers
Lawrence’s paralysis and
withdrawal from public life
After stepping onto the
international stage as the real-life embodiment of the heroes imagined
by the imperial romancers, Lawrence fled the limelight for reasons none
could grasp. Deserting All Souls College, he enlisted as a private in
the Royal Air Force under the assumed name of Ross. When found out and
expelled, he sought
society in a way that civic humanism did not, and thus allowed the
middle classes to contribute a civilizing social benefit to the
Among the Historic Gallery’s pictures, representations of
domesticity and virtuous heroines, depicting the embodiment of feminine
sentiment, were given a central role in the aesthetic production of
moral sympathy. Like many novelists
Milner’s ‘excentric’ High Commision in South Africa
subordination of the High Commission to Rhodes. But the disastrous
failure of the Jameson Raid, which for the moment neutralised
colonial sub-imperialism, would swing the pendulum back the other
way, in favour of greater High Commission involvement as the
embodiment of the nownaked Imperial Factor. But in 1896 Robinson (or
Lord Rosmead as he had become) still would not conform to
The 'Indian Room' label from Osterley's bell-pull system illustrates the economic and cultural aspects of the relationship between country houses and the British Empire. This book is a study of that relationship, of the ways in which country houses like Osterley served as venues for the expression of personal and national imperial engagement between 1700 and 1930. A rare scholarly analysis of the history of country houses that goes beyond an architectural or biographical study, and recognises their importance as the physical embodiments of imperial wealth and reflectors of imperial cultural influences, is presented. The book assesses the economic and cultural links between country houses and the Empire. In terms of imperial values, country houses expressed both the economic and cultural impact of empire. Carr and Gladstone were only two of the many examples of colonial merchants who turned landed magnates. Nabobs - men who made their fortunes either as employees of the East India Company or as 'free traders' in India - were willing to risk their lives in pursuit of wealth. Like nabobs, planters went to the colonies in search of wealth and were prepared to spend substantial time there in order to accumulate it. Military and naval were among categories of people who purchased landed estates with imperial wealth. The book identifies four discourses of empire - commodities, cosmopolitanism, conquest and collecting - that provided the basic categories in which empire was represented in country-house context.