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A reassessment
Jon Seligman, Paul Bauman, Richard Freund, Harry Jol, Alastair McClymont and Philip Reeder

The Ponar-Paneriai base, the main extermination site of Vilna-Vilnius, began its existence as a Red Army fuel depot in 1940. After Nazi occupation of the city in 1941 the Einsatzgruppen and mostly Lithuanian members of the Ypatingasis būrys used the pits dug for the fuel tanks for the murder of the Jews of Vilna and large numbers of Polish residents. During its operation, Ponar was cordoned off, but changes to the topography of the site since the Second World War have made a full understanding of the site difficult. This article uses contemporary plans and aerial photographs to reconstruct the layout of the site, in order to better understand the process of extermination, the size of the Ponar base and how the site was gradually reduced in size after 1944.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Deposits, waste or ritual remnants?
Philippe Lefranc and Fanny Chenal

Among the numerous human remains found in circular pits belonging to the fourth millennium BCE cultures north of the Alps, there are many examples of bodies laid in random (or unconventional) positions. Some of these remains in irregular configurations, interred alongside an individual in a conventional flexed position, can be considered as a ‘funerary accompaniment’. Other burials, of isolated individuals or multiple individuals buried in unconventional positions, suggest the existence of burial practices outside of the otherwise strict framework of funerary rites. The focus of this article is the evidence recently arising from excavation and anthropological studies from the Upper Rhine Plain (Michelsberg and Munzingen cultures). We assume that these bodies in unconventional positions were not dumped as trash, but that they were a part of the final act of a complex ritual. It is hypothesised that these bodies, interpreted here as ritual waste, were sacrificial victims, and a number of possible explanations, including ‘peripheral accompaniment’ or victims of acts of war, are debated.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Art, process, archaeology

This book presents a study of material images and asks how an appreciation of the making and unfolding of images and art alters archaeological accounts of prehistoric and historic societies. With contributions focusing on case studies including prehistoric Britain, Scandinavia, Iberia, the Americas and Dynastic Egypt, and including contemporary reflections on material images, it makes a novel contribution to ongoing debates relating to archaeological art and images. The book offers a New Materialist analysis of archaeological imagery, with an emphasis on considering the material character of images and their making and unfolding. The book reassesses the predominantly representational paradigm of archaeological image analysis and argues for the importance of considering the ontology of images. It considers images as processes or events and introduces the verb ‘imaging’ to underline the point that images are conditions of possibility that draw together differing aspects of the world. The book is divided into three sections: ‘Emergent images’, which focuses on practices of making; ‘Images as process’, which examines the making and role of images in prehistoric societies; and ‘Unfolding images’, which focuses on how images change as they are made and circulated. The book features contributions from archaeologists, Egyptologists, anthropologists and artists. The contributors to the book highlight the multiple role of images in prehistoric and historic societies, demonstrating that archaeologists need to recognise the dynamic and changeable character of images.

John H. Taylor

, as in (among others) Iay-res, Iah-res, Iuwy-res, Ibia-res, Ibi-res, Ipu-resti, Amenyshery-res, Teti-res, Ruiu-resti and Bebi-resti (Ranke 1935–52, I: 6, 3; 13, 7; 16, 17; 19, 5; 20, 11; 23, 13; 31, 16; 221, 6; 385, 5; II: 276, 31; Davies and Gardiner 1915: 63). Though the name Senty-resti has not been previously attested, Senti and Senty are known as independent feminine names (Ranke 1935–52, I: 312, 1, 5), and the existence of a compound form with rs.tı’ is perfectly in accordance with the naming traditions of the early 18th Dynasty. Function and context Small or

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
James Clifford

Tamusi’s ‘museum’. It is not a figure of ending, or even of loss. The Weir, which unlike the dam does not try to hold back the river, is a pragmatic selection of cultural resources and models, a technology of transformation. In any event, we cannot assume that Tamusi’s river is the ‘arrow of time’ familiar to Western meta-historians, at least not inasmuch as an arrow points somewhere. The ocean into which this river of time empties may not be any specific future, but simply a figure for non-recurrence in the flow of existence. In the book from which this example is

in Curatopia
Tim Ingold

flora of their wetland milieu, are uncanny. What is at stake with these pots, however, is the growth and formation of human bodies. Alberti is wondering what anthropomorphism really is, and he turns to the pots for answers. He also turns for inspiration to the influential work of Alfred Gell (1998), not so much for what it has to say about art and agency, but for its analysis of the formal attributes of artworks. But the attempt to apply a Gellian analysis immediately collides with the fundamentally ‘verb-like’ character of existence in the Amerindian world. Nothing

in Images in the making
Patricia Lambert-Zazulak

create a permanent, stable image of the deceased from their organic remains. The mummy was then recognisable to the spirit of that individual to visit and to ensure a continued existence in the afterlife. 320 understanding egyptian mummies By studying the gross anatomy of mummies, we can see evidence of the embalmers’ procedures which demonstrate the ancient Egyptians’ knowledge of human anatomy, along with their beliefs about the afterlife (Lambert-Zazulak 1997). Thus many aspects of learning and faith were brought together in the special methods of treating the

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
The key role of the Italian antiquarian market in the inception of American Classical art collections during the late-nineteenth century
Francesca de Tomasi

of knowledge theory (Livingstone, 2003) is also useful to highlight the existence of a strict relationship between the ‘sites’ where knowledge was created, the subjects that were allowed to access those ‘sites’ and the way that knowledge was spread. Livingstone writes: Just how knowledge embedded in a particular location moves from its point of origin to general circulation, and thereby transcends locale, is an inherently spatial question and introduces a crucial dynamic to the geography of science. Rather than being understood simply as an inevitable consequence

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Abstract only
Rick Peterson

outline, but it has complex consequences. A-series time differentiates between events based on whether they are past, present or future events. B-series time orders events as being either before or after one another. The distinction between A and B series time is explained by Gell (1992, 154–155) in the following terms. The existence of an object in B-series time can be envisaged as a ‘linear streak’ in space-time. Space-time itself is stable and always present, but we encounter events in a particular order as we move through it, giving the ‘before’ and ‘after

in Neolithic cave burials
Lidija M. McKnight and Stephanie Atherton-Woolham

regarding their purpose to be redefined (McKnight and Atherton 2014: 109–10). Traditionally, animal mummies were defined as ‘true’, those containing a single complete, articulated individual, as would be expected of a mummy bundle; and ‘pseudo’, those containing either incomplete skeletal remains or unexpected non-skeletal materials (Moodie 1993; Owen 2001; Ikram 2005). The existence of pseudo-examples was taken as evidence of fraudulent behaviour by the embalmers (Ikram 2005: 14); in other words, incomplete remains were intended to deceptively appear as complete

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt