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A. Altmann
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Jenefer Cockitt

For over a hundred years, palaeopathologists have studied the ancient Nubian population, examining the patterns of disease and trauma evident in the surviving human remains. Despite the remarkable amount of progress made in this area, there have been few attempts to discern whether there is enough available evidence to support the existence of a defined ancient medical tradition in the country, akin to that in neighbouring Egypt. Given the lack of textual sources for prehistoric Nubia, evidence for such a tradition must be sought in the human remains themselves. Here, an assessment will be provided of the possible palaeopathological evidence for healthcare practices in ancient Nubia, focusing in particular on the artefacts from the first Archaeological Survey of Nubia. The data presented, although tentative, represent the first point on the road to greater understanding of ancient Nubian medical traditions.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
David R. Law

The theological energies released by Martin Luther in 1517 created a set of theological insights and problems that eventually led to the development of kenotic Christology (i. e., the view that in order for the Son of God to become incarnate and live a genuinely human life, he emptied himself of his divine prerogatives or attributes). This article traces how kenotic Christology originated in the Eucharistic Controversy between Luther and Zwingli, before receiving its first extensive treatment in the debate between the Lutheran theologians of Tübingen and Giessen in,the early seventeenth century. Attention then turns to the nine-teenth century, when doctrinal tensions resulting from the enforced union of the Prussian Lutheran and Reformed churches created the conditions for a new flowering of kenotic Christology in the theologies of Ernst Sartorius and, subsequently, Gottfried Thomasius. Kenotic Christology ultimately originates with Luther, however, for it owes its existence to the creative theological energies he unleashed and which remain his lasting legacy.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Open Access (free)
A reassessment
Jon Seligman, Paul Bauman, Richard Freund, Harry Jol, Alastair McClymont and Philip Reeder

The Ponar-Paneriai base, the main extermination site of Vilna-Vilnius, began its existence as a Red Army fuel depot in 1940. After Nazi occupation of the city in 1941 the Einsatzgruppen and mostly Lithuanian members of the Ypatingasis būrys used the pits dug for the fuel tanks for the murder of the Jews of Vilna and large numbers of Polish residents. During its operation, Ponar was cordoned off, but changes to the topography of the site since the Second World War have made a full understanding of the site difficult. This article uses contemporary plans and aerial photographs to reconstruct the layout of the site, in order to better understand the process of extermination, the size of the Ponar base and how the site was gradually reduced in size after 1944.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Deposits, waste or ritual remnants?
Philippe Lefranc and Fanny Chenal

Among the numerous human remains found in circular pits belonging to the fourth millennium BCE cultures north of the Alps, there are many examples of bodies laid in random (or unconventional) positions. Some of these remains in irregular configurations, interred alongside an individual in a conventional flexed position, can be considered as a ‘funerary accompaniment’. Other burials, of isolated individuals or multiple individuals buried in unconventional positions, suggest the existence of burial practices outside of the otherwise strict framework of funerary rites. The focus of this article is the evidence recently arising from excavation and anthropological studies from the Upper Rhine Plain (Michelsberg and Munzingen cultures). We assume that these bodies in unconventional positions were not dumped as trash, but that they were a part of the final act of a complex ritual. It is hypothesised that these bodies, interpreted here as ritual waste, were sacrificial victims, and a number of possible explanations, including ‘peripheral accompaniment’ or victims of acts of war, are debated.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Editor: Howard Chiang

This collection expands the history of Chinese medicine by bridging the philosophical concerns of epistemology and the history and cultural politics of transregional medical formations. Topics range from the spread of gingko’s popularity from East Asia to the West to the appeal of acupuncture for complementing in-vitro fertilization regimens, from the modernization of Chinese anatomy and forensic science to the evolving perceptions of the clinical efficacy of Chinese medicine.

The individual essays cohere around the powerful theoretical-methodological approach, “historical epistemology,” with which scholars in science studies have already challenged the seemingly constant and timeless status of such rudimentary but pivotal dimensions of scientific process as knowledge, reason, argument, objectivity, evidence, fact, and truth. Yet given that landmark studies in historical epistemology rarely navigate outside the intellectual landscape of Western science and medicine, this book broadens our understanding of its application and significance by drawing on and exploring the rich cultures of Chinese medicine. In studying the globalizing role of medical objects, the contested premise of medical authority and legitimacy, and the syncretic transformations of metaphysical and ontological knowledge, contributors illuminate how the breadth of the historical study of Chinese medicine and its practices of knowledge-making in the modern period must be at once philosophical and transnational in scope.

This book will appeal to students and scholars working in science studies and medical humanities as well as readers who are interested in the broader problems of translation, material culture, and the global circulation of knowledge.

Elite European migrants in the British Empire
Author: Panikos Panayi

While most of the Germans who suffered expulsion during the First World War lived within British shores, the Royal Navy brought Germans from throughout the world to face incarceration in the their network of camp. This book offers a new interpretation of global migration from the early nineteenth until the early twentieth century. It examines the elite German migrants who progressed to India, especially missionaries, scholars and scientists, businessmen and travellers. The book investigates the reasons for the migration of Germans to India. An examination of the realities of German existence in India follows. It then examines the complex identities of the Germans in India in the century before the First World War. The role of the role of racism, orientalism and Christianity is discussed. The stereotypes that emerged from travelogues include: an admiration of Indian landscapes; contempt for Hinduism; criticism of the plight of women; and repulsion at cityscapes. The book moves to focus upon the transformation which took place as a result of this conflict, mirroring the plight of Germans in other parts of the world. The marginalisation which took place in 1920 closely mirrored the plight of the German communities throughout the British Empire. The unique aspect of the experience in India consisted of the birth of a national identity. Finally, the book places the experience of the Germans in India into four contexts: the global history of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; German history; history of the British Empire in India; and Indian history.

Abstract only
A memory restored
Isaac Stephens

relationship and yet could also challenge his familial authority, perhaps no more dramatically than by choosing to never marry. On pondering this, we look about the church and are reminded of another key figure for Elizabeth – God, the one to whom she addressed her voice and confessed her sins in the spiritual autobiography that represented a testament to her belief in the active presence of his divine will in her life. As we step down from the chancel and return through the nave, we further reflect on how both God and her family defined much of her existence, coming to

in The gentlewoman’s remembrance
Howard Chiang

1 Historical epistemology and the making of modern Chinese medicine Howard Chiang The history of Chinese medicine is undergoing a sea-change. Scholars have engaged independently and collectively in re-imagining the discipline, contextualizing it in an unprecedented way within a broader context of the translation, transmission, and global circulation of knowledge.1 This is in many ways a new and exciting field, informed by questions that are meant to explore the emergence of different ways of knowing in and beyond modern China, rather than taking the existence of

in Historical epistemology and the making of modern Chinese medicine
Memories of violence in the Dutch Revolt
Erika Kuijpers and Judith Pollmann

try to answer that question with reference to the survivors of the sacks of the Dutch Revolt. First, under what circumstances did the survivors resume their lives? One important condition for the collective commemoration of violence is the existence of what Aleida Asmann has called a Solidargemeinschaft – a community of solidarity.11 Victims share their experi­ences with their peers, their community and finally with the world at large, but only with those who are prepared to listen and acknowledge the 178 • erika kuijpers & judith pollmann • experiences. This

in Ireland, 1641