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Editor: Howard Chiang

This collection expands the history of Chinese medicine by bridging the philosophical concerns of epistemology and the history and cultural politics of transregional medical formations. Topics range from the spread of gingko’s popularity from East Asia to the West to the appeal of acupuncture for complementing in-vitro fertilization regimens, from the modernization of Chinese anatomy and forensic science to the evolving perceptions of the clinical efficacy of Chinese medicine.

The individual essays cohere around the powerful theoretical-methodological approach, “historical epistemology,” with which scholars in science studies have already challenged the seemingly constant and timeless status of such rudimentary but pivotal dimensions of scientific process as knowledge, reason, argument, objectivity, evidence, fact, and truth. Yet given that landmark studies in historical epistemology rarely navigate outside the intellectual landscape of Western science and medicine, this book broadens our understanding of its application and significance by drawing on and exploring the rich cultures of Chinese medicine. In studying the globalizing role of medical objects, the contested premise of medical authority and legitimacy, and the syncretic transformations of metaphysical and ontological knowledge, contributors illuminate how the breadth of the historical study of Chinese medicine and its practices of knowledge-making in the modern period must be at once philosophical and transnational in scope.

This book will appeal to students and scholars working in science studies and medical humanities as well as readers who are interested in the broader problems of translation, material culture, and the global circulation of knowledge.

Analysing mental health discourses and practices in Ireland
Derek Chambers

– by critical psychiatrists, survivors of the mental health system and others – has led to the emergence of different, and sometimes conflicting, ways of constructing ‘truths’ about mental health. In this chapter, I use ideas drawn from governmentality to explore the emergence, and sometimes uneasy co-existence, of these discourses in the mental health policy arena. In particular, I seek to expose a key tension in recent policy pronouncements between broad statements about the universal relevance of our mental health (the notion that we all have mental health) and

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
Katherine Foxhall

sickness, but also with the punishment of transportation, but it is also clear that convicts did not, and could not, make decisions about their health independently of the penal imperatives that governed this episode in their lives. Often, a desire to go to sea says as much about the experience of imprisonment in places like Newgate gaol in London as it does about the curative potential of the maritime environment itself. The existence of debates about the idea of the ‘voyage for health’ also begins to explain why departure was

in Health, medicine, and the sea
Martin Atherton

3 The developmenT of deaf clubs in briTain The deaf community could not have come into existence without shared locations where socially isolated deaf people could gather and develop relationships based on common experiences and characteristics. As the previous chapter illustrated, deaf clubs have long been seen as the hub of deaf community life but little has been previously known about how or why they emerged other than that these deaf clubs arose from a number of local voluntary organisations set up to assist deaf people in their daily lives. In this chapter

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

More than just passing the time
Martin Atherton

events that the term represented as it was to a geographical space. In reality, the deaf community has had no physical embodiment in the daily lives of adult deaf people, who largely spend their time apart from each other. As such, the deaf community represents a prime example of Anderson’s concept of the ‘imagined community’.3 Therefore, the existence of deaf clubs was vital to the development and maintenance of the notion of a deaf community, as they represented the main or indeed sole form of communion with others who shared similar experiences, outlooks and values

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain
Mikko Myllykangas

is an effect of the struggle for existence and of human selection, which works according to the laws of evolution among civilized people.’  38 Those who did not come out of the struggle as victorious suffered from ‘some morbid aberration’ in their brains and were removed from the survival contest by voluntary death. 39 As we can see here, Morselli's definition of suicide was not meant to be a universal definition. Instead, his focus was on the suicide phenomenon in

in Progress and pathology
Abstract only
A window on the deaf world
Martin Atherton

5 British Deaf News: a window on the deaf world The existence of a group of people who identify themselves as members of a distinct community based primarily on their shared deafness is without dispute. The members of this community are geographically dispersed; there are no places in Britain where the majority of inhabitants are deaf. However, it has been established that a locus for the community’s activities was provided by the network of deaf clubs that were established from the mid-nineteenth century. In these clubs, deaf people were able to develop notions

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain
Variations on the abdomen in Marivaux’s L’Homère travesti and Le Télémaque travesti
Clémence Aznavour

, Achilles, Ulysses and  the other heroes are all present, but their actions lack the nobility of their epic models. Le Télémaque travesti on the other hand follows the tradition inaugurated by Cervantes’s Don Quixote. For Genette it is ‘a singulative antiromance – i.e., one with a single hypotext’, and therefore with a predetermined plot.7 Thus Brideron and Phocion consider that they are living out lives analogous to those of their models, Telemachus and Mentor. What authorises the comparison between these two works by Marivaux is the existence of one or more hypotexts

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century