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‘Symbols of defiance’ from the print to the digital age
Matt Grimes and Tim Wall

15 Punk zines: ‘symbols of defiance’ from the print to the digital age Matt Grimes and Tim Wall In this chapter we examine the development of punk fanzines from the late 1970s to the present, exploring the role of these music fan-produced publications in giving meaning to the experience of a music community. This discussion of the punk fanzine’s longitudinal existence allows us to investigate the variety of ways that the fanzines and webzines make sense of punk as music, a set of political ideas and as a subcultural scene. In particular we want to trace the way

in Fight back
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Alternative Ulster?
George Legg

, ‘many resources in aesthetic alter-­modern spaces of the past via which to experiment with steps forward’.5 Wark’s comments were made in response to Alex Williams and Nick Srnicek’s #Accelerate: Manifesto for an Accelerationist Politics (2013), but through its critique #Celerity forms something of a manifesto in itself. In the following concluding remarks, I draw upon this document, but I do so in the context of another manifesto or movement of sorts, namely Northern Irish punk. My focus is on the punk fanzine Alternative Ulster and, more particularly, a polemic piece

in Northern Ireland and the politics of boredom
An interview with Jon Savage
Matthew Worley

Afterword The cultural impact of punk: an interview with Jon Savage Matthew Worley Among the numerous accounts of punk’s origins and early development that now exist, Jon Savage’s England’s Dreaming (1991) is peerless. Combining sharp critical analysis with participatory insight, it locates British punk squarely within its socio-economic, cultural and political context. Indeed, Savage’s reading of punk may be traced back to his 1976-produced fanzine London’s Outrage, which interspersed media clippings and pop cultural references with an essay forewarning Britain

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British DIY punk as a form of cultural resistance
Michelle Liptrot

the Do-it-Yourself (DIY) self-production ethic of 1970s punk, whereby participants followed in the DIY tradition of jazz, skiffle and the sixties counter-culture to produce their own music, visual style and media (in the form of fanzines).7 Another important aspect of the DIY ethic in punk was that bands were (and remain) audience members, underlining punk’s participatory nature and conveying a sense of egalitarianism. This DIY ethic was developed during the 1980s by British anarcho and American hardcore punk, both of which placed greater emphasis on DIY activities

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‘Crisis music’ and political ephemera in the emergent ‘structure of feeling’, 1976–83
Herbert Pimlott

more than disposable literature; it includes a range of media, from graffiti long since painted over (‘Eat the Rich’; ‘Kill the Poor’; ‘The lemmings were pushed’) to faded fly-posters and poorly photocopied zines, which retain the structure of feeling in typeface, layout, words, phrases and symbols. The music and lyrics played a role in politicising working-class youth and were linked intertextually with struggles expressed via leaflets, fanzines and pamphlets, which were produced, for example, by welfare claimants in north London and by an anonymous collective

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From protest to resistance
Matthew Worley, Keith Gildart, Anna Gough-Yates, Sian Lincoln and Bill Osgerby

. Not surprisingly, perhaps, there have been numerous attempts to claim punk as reflective of a particular political perspective.10 Punk, particularly in its British incarnation, appeared to contain explicit political content; in the USA, fanzines such as Maximum Rock ’n’ Roll sought to imbue punk with a relatively distinct political philosophy.11 Certainly, many drawn to and involved in punk have endeavoured to filter or apply political ideas through its cultural medium. Others have espoused an anti-politics position that nevertheless retains an implicit political

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Class, locality and British punk
Matthew Worley

styles and subcultural forms emerging from the debris.29 But even amongst those who remained avowedly punk, there existed by the turn of the decade a mesh of mutating sub-scenes: the anarchist bands inspired by Crass; the proto-gothic tribes gathered around Siouxsie and the Banshees and the early Adam and the Ants; the hardening punk thrash pioneered by Discharge; the guttersnipe ruck ‘n’ roll of the Cockney Rejects; not to mention the numerous provincial scenes concentrated on local venues, record labels, squats, fanzines and shops. Oi!, then, was rooted in a post

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Torino and the Collettivo Punx Anarchici
Giacomo Bottà

for something to do: The Collettivo started organising these gigs and they were crowded. In the city there was nothing going on, no one knew the bands that were playing, they were teenagers, but we were still going on stage in front of 4–600 people. At one famous gig, I don’t remember, I think in February ’83 with MDC from San Francisco, there were nearly a thousand people there.13 By 1983, compilation tapes and fanzines were circulating around the city. It was the release of Declino’s debut EP (1983), however, that represented the Collettivo’s first (and last

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The relational character of subcultural ideology in the case ofCzech punks and skinheads
Hedvika Novotná and Martin Heřmanský

-Nazis. At the risk of overstatement, both subcultures advanced from ‘adolescence’ to ‘early adulthood’ in the 1990s, through which their subcultural ideology of mutual differentiation was overcome. Punks and skins each reacted and responded to their distorted media image, leading to a growing emphasis on the ‘traditional’ form and roots of their respective subculture. An interest in the origins and history of the subcultures was evident, with fanzines giving space to debate as to their character in Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia as compared to in the West

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East German punk in its social, political and historical context
Aimar Ventsel

-five and forty-five. Punk in (East) Germany Germany has one of the world’s largest independent punk scenes, with several booking agencies, probably hundreds of clubs (focused exclusively or partly on punk), and a lively fanzine culture. Most of the scene is run on a DIY basis and brings very little commercial revenue to its organisers. Large German-based festivals, such as Endless Summer, With Full Force and Search and Destroy, are internationally renowned; foreign punk bands constantly tour the country. However, the punks of West and East Germany have rather different

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