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Rachel Stone and Charles West

appeals to ancient authorities in a battle over the meaning of marriage. 512 It is nevertheless true that the political struggle was at least in part articulated through reasoned argument over principles, and nominally based on evidence collected from a remarkable range of sources. In this it stood in a tradition of ninth-century Frankish political contests involving competition

in The divorce of King Lothar and Queen Theutberga
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Mayke de Jong and Justin Lake

The first book of the Epitaphium covers the period from Wala’s youth at Charlemagne’s court until the years 822–5 when the great man, by then known as ‘Arsenius’, served as deputy to Louis’ son Lothar, who was king of Italy and was crowned emperor in Rome in 823. In 814 Wala, banished from Louis’ court, had retreated to Corbie, yet in 821 he and his half-brother Adalhard, abbot of Corbie, had been reconciled with the Emperor Louis. About all this, the first book is almost entirely silent. The main theme of a lively dialogue among three monks, with some additional interlocutors, is the deep grief about Wala’s recent death. We get brief hints to all this political trouble, but most of this is obfuscated by deft literary tactics, in which citations from Terence play a central part. The first book is a masterpiece of allusion, and also gives an indication of the intended audience: not just the monks of Corbie, but also a literate Carolingian leadership impressed by Radbert’s brilliance, and perhaps persuaded to look differently at Wala/Arsenius, who had died in 836 in Italy. Shortly thereafter Radbert embarked on this first book.

in Confronting crisis in the Carolingian empire
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Timothy Reuter

remains of debates and discussions about the Frankish political world which we can reconstruct only in part, and in reading these texts it is important to listen to their silences and note their emphases. The seemingly disinterested objectivity of the genre, found over long stretches even of the Annals of Fulda (henceforth AF ), whose authors were by no means dispassionate observers of events, can be very deceptive

in The Annals of Fulda
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Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding

structure that we can see the political uses of gold: tribute payments, gifts between kings, royal dowries and, presumably, rewards for military commanders. These all are obviously important, but exceptional, events in Frankish political life. Silver coins, on the other hand, could be used for smaller, more basic and more normal transactions of a local and agricultural nature, as well as for rewarding the

in Late Merovingian France
Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding

, Berchar and Raganfred. After Ebroin, the Frankish political centre of gravity would gradually abandon the Seine–Oise valley for fresher lands to the east. The LHF tells us little of the events of the reign of Clothar III, for which we turn largely to the Vita Balthildis . 8 When Clothar died in 673 the Neustrians installed his brother, Theuderic, on the throne. For reasons which the author of the

in Late Merovingian France
Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding

acquired the relics. 11 Furthermore, we suspect that the work was contemporary, or nearly so, because it is dedicated to Hermenar, Leudegar’s successor as bishop of Autun. Two casual first-person eyewitness references to events, and the work’s generally extraordinarily detailed treatment of affairs, both in Autun and at the centre of Frankish politics, also lead us to

in Late Merovingian France
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Simon MacLean

Frankish politics, and the empire retained its hegemonic character thanks to the close family relationships of its rulers. However, a realm sustained by dynastic ideology depended for its continued existence on the capacity of the ruling dynasty to keep reproducing itself. A series of unexpected royal deaths and barren marriages in the 870s and 880s caused the political fabric to begin unravelling, and in

in History and politics in late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe
Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding

which the bishops were used to exerting strong local control over everything in their dioceses, including the monasteries. In the Frankish political system of family and faction a strong independent religious centre would be a juicy plum indeed for one side or the other. Such a monastery could, of course, work with the local bishop, but it could also work against him, depending on the factional

in Late Merovingian France
Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding

are strictly those tried and proven virtues which brought success in Frankish political and military spheres. Next we are given a detailed account, although not always an accurate one, of how Martel gained the leadership of the Austrasians. It is significant that the author shows us that he did this largely through battles with external enemies. Conquering the gentes , as we

in Late Merovingian France
Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding

it shows us peace being re-established at a local level, with those behind the bishop’s murder becoming patrons of a cult which celebrated his status as a martyr. It was this ability to make peace at both local and ‘national’ level which enabled the Frankish political community to survive its periodic bouts of feuding. The Passio Praejecti is a source of immense value in providing us with

in Late Merovingian France