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Claims to universality and charges of particularism
Philip Burton

international rules governing foreign-owned property. Broches, the General Counsel of the World Bank and chief architect of the Convention, deliberately avoided making any reference to the recently adopted General Assembly resolution on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources. 181 Crucially, unlike previous conventions adopted at the World Bank, the drafting of the Washington Convention

in Latin America and international investment law
A sustainable development argument in investor–state dispute settlement
Sebastián Preller-Bórquez

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Annex II, A/CONF.151/26 (Vol I), Rio de Janeiro, 3–14 June 1992; the Earth Summit+5 , United Nations General Assembly Resolution S-19/2, A/S-19/29, 19th Special Session Agenda Item 8, 11th Plenary Meeting, 28 June 1997; the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development , United Nations

in Latin America and international investment law
Silvia Salvatici

refugee status naturally had as a consequence the denial of international protection. 40 In this case, too, the UN took the path of compromise and, through a specific General Assembly resolution, granted the UNHCR the task of assisting the Algerians in Morocco and Tunisia, 41 leaving the recognition of their status unresolved, however. In this context, France’s position towards the World Refugee Year was ambiguous: the government officially gave its support but very little was done to develop the activities set out in the programme. 42 The plan launched for

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Ireland, the EC and southern Africa
Kevin O’Sullivan

create a solution acceptable to the society as a whole.29 When the results of the Pearce Commission made clear the African population’s resounding rejection of the proposed constitution, however, the Irish delegation responded in kind. On 30 November 1972 it voted in favour of a draft General Assembly resolution on Rhodesia presented to the Fourth Committee (Britain, Portugal and the United States voted against) in the belief that the Rhodesian regime could no longer deny that ‘the majority .  .  . were willing and able to assume responsibility for the future

in Ireland, Africa and the end of empire
Universalizing resistance
Fabian Cardenas
Jean d’Aspremont

afforded to foreign investment persisted after the second world war. Even though Resolution 1803 on the Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources of 14 December 1962 103 can be read as a tentative compromise between the positions of capital-exporting and capital importing countries by not excluding “appropriate compensation,” 104 UN General Assembly Resolution 1301 of 1 May

in Latin America and international investment law
An introduction
Sabine Lee

signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/​25 of 20 November 1989, www2.ohchr. org/​english/​law/​crc.htm. (accessed 22.10.2014). 44 Mikaila Mariel Lemonik Arthur, ‘The neglected virtues of comparative-historical methods’, in Ieva Zake and Michaal De Cesare (eds), New Directions in Sociology: Essays on Theory and Methodology in the 21st Century (Jefferson/​NC: McFarland, 2011), 172–92, here p. 172. 45 Ingvill C. Mochmann and Stein Ugelvik Larsen, ‘Kriegskinder in Europa’, Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 18–19 (2005), 34–8. 46 Heide

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
Ireland and the decolonisation of Africa
Kevin O’Sullivan

guide the African continent along a similar path. Although it proved more difficult to implement in practice, the Irish assessment was not unfounded. The year 1960, the ‘year of Africa’, became a turning point in the history of the UN’s involvement in colonial issues. General Assembly resolution 1514, the ‘Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples’, passed in December of that year, acted as its focal point. The document’s emphasis on ending colonialism and colonial structures helped to redefine the playing field for discussion of these

in Ireland, Africa and the end of empire
The birth of the Irish Anti-Apartheid Movement
Kevin O’Sullivan

early 1960s an estimated five thousand to fifteen thousand (7 per cent of the white population) identified themselves as ‘Irish-Rhodesians’.5 Yet the continued existence of these ties could not disguise the underlying Irish distaste for the regimes’ denial of African rights. In 1956 Liam Cosgrave instructed the Irish delegation to vote in favour of a (mild) UN General Assembly resolution reprimanding South Africa for its apartheid system and another which called on that country’s government to report on its treatment of its population of Indian origin. Cosgrave

in Ireland, Africa and the end of empire
The politics of migration in the final days of Rhodesia and apartheid South Africa, 1970–94
Jean P. Smith

36/1634, D.R. Upton, Memorandum, ‘Encouraging White Emigration from Rhodesia’, 18 July 1974. 42 Brownell, Collapse of Rhodesia , pp. 97–131. 43 UN General Assembly, Resolution 2396, ‘The policies of apartheid of the Government of South Africa’, 2 December 1968, p. 20. For more on the role of the United Nations in the struggle against see Dubow, Apartheid , pp. 47–50, 83, 191, 278; Newell M. Stultz, ‘Evolution of the United Nations Anti-Apartheid Regime

in Settlers at the end of empire
Who are they? Experiences of children, mothers, families and post-conflict communities
Sabine Lee

, ratification and 50 CBOW in the twentieth century accession by General Assembly resolution 44/​25 of 20 November 1989 (1996),​english/​law/​crc.htm. (accessed 25.9. 2015). 126 ‘Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child’. 127 UN, ‘The Universal Declaration of Human Rights’, 1948 G.A.res. 217 (III), www.​en/​documents/​udhr/​. (accessed 2.1.2016). 128 UN, ‘Declaration of the Rights of the Child’, 1959. G.A. res. 1386 (XIV), 14 U.N. GAOR Supp. (no. 16) at 19, U.N. Doc. A/​4354,​en/​child​r ens

in Children born of war in the twentieth century