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A popular project and an unpopular party

.8 14.6  4.0 31.0 45.2 50.2 45.3 47.3 46.1 44.9 48.6 44.5 48.8 44.3 43.8 41.4 35.1 38.5 35.2 33.8 40.0 78.5 86.0 87.8 87.7 86.8 86.7 91.1 90.7 88.6 89.1 84.3 77.8 79.0 82.2 79.1 77.7 70.8 Note: 1949–87: West Germany; 1990–2010: Germany including the former German Democratic Republic. Source: Infratest Dimap since the Great Recession) to a fundamental contradiction in German politics. Even though the welfare state is highly popular, its actual provisions are subordinated to world market success. Austerity is thus, however grudgingly, accepted as necessary in order

in European social democracy during the global economic crisis
Power, accountability and democracy

Does European integration contribute to, or even accelerate, the erosion of intra-party democracy? This book is about improving our understanding of political parties as democratic organisations in the context of multi-level governance. It analyses the impact of European Union (EU) membership on power dynamics, focusing on the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party (PS), and the German Social Democratic Party (SPD). The purpose of this book is to investigate who within the three parties determines EU policies and selects EU specialists, such as the candidates for European parliamentary elections and EU spokespersons.

The book utilises a principal-agent framework to investigate the delegation of power inside the three parties across multiple levels and faces. It draws on over 65 original interviews with EU experts from the three national parties and the Party of European Socialists (PES) and an e-mail questionnaire. This book reveals that European policy has largely remained in the hands of the party leadership. Its findings suggest that the party grassroots are interested in EU affairs, but that interest rarely translates into influence, as information asymmetry between the grassroots and the party leadership makes it very difficult for local activists to scrutinise elected politicians and to come up with their own policy proposals. As regards the selection of EU specialists, such as candidates for the European parliamentary elections, this book highlights that the parties’ processes are highly political, often informal, and in some cases, undemocratic.

German police system’.23 However, once again no action ensued – and indeed more rigorous surveillance would have run counter to the policies of government, particularly after Neville Chamberlain became Prime Minister in 1937, pursuing a policy of ‘appeasement’ of the Axis powers. The case of Hans Wesemann In fact, the ‘Auslandsorganisation’ and visiting journalists did not represent the only possible channels for German espionage on British soil; this could be achieved through refugee circles as well. The confusion prevailing in the ranks of the German political exiles

in A matter of intelligence

sinister role in the suicides of Dr Dora Fabian and Frau Wurm at 12, Great Ormond Street on 1.4.1935’. The report, which was also informed by the confessions that Wesemann had made to the Swiss police about his relations with the German Embassy in London, noted that, through the Embassy, Wesemann ‘was working for a secret department of the German police which is exclusively concerned in watching German political refugees abroad, luring the most dangerous back to Germany or taking other steps to render them innocuous’.30 It noted further that, after the Fabian–Wurm deaths

in A matter of intelligence
The German left and the crisis

Introduction Germany's approach to tackling the financial and Eurozone crises was central to the entire issue. However, analyses have tended to focus almost entirely on the policy choices taken by Angela Merkel's centre right Christian Democratic Party. Surprisingly little attention has been given to the policy positions developed and adopted by Germany's political parties on the centre left, even though their policies have been those of a junior coalition partner and are potentially those of a future governing party. On

in The European left and the financial crisis
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MI5 in the making

, resulting in frequent territorial disputes between MI5 and MI6. MI5 was established to combat the threat of German espionage. The focus on Germany as a potential and real enemy remained a major concern of the organisation until 1945, though during the inter-war period it was matched by concern about the ‘red menace’. These twin preoccupations help to explain the surveillance of so many Germanpolitical’ refugees after 1933, most of whom were targeted as ‘Communists and suspected Communists’. The Security Service only rather belatedly recognised the threat to British

in A matter of intelligence
Common norms, diverse policy models

among judicial and political elites as a result of several cultural and institutional features of the German political landscape. The processes by which national political systems have translated the SSU norm into specific policy models is thus multi-faceted and cannot, as is largely the case with the SSU adoption question, be explained by culture alone. I use the concepts of discursive and political opportunity structures to distinguish the roles that institutional structures, constitutional norms and broader cultural values have played in shaping these specific SSU

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies

intersubjective perspective, it was argued, could the aporia of the subject be overcome without an abandonment of reason. The appearance of TCA and PDM coincided with a rightward shift in German politics, the election of Helmut Kohl in 1982 inaugurating sixteen years of Christian Democratic government. As previously, it was in Habermas’s journalism that theoretical concerns were made relevant to contemporary affairs. ’Conservative politics, work, socialism and Utopia today’ (Habermas, 1986d ), an article from 1984, continued to chart

in Habermas and European integration
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British supporters of the refugees

Pritt’s Parliamentary Question of 8 May 1945 on the decision not to transfer Bush to the Army Education Corps (Hansard, 5th Series, Parliamentary Debates, HC, vol. 410, col. 1864). 21 Draft MI5 minute for HO, 25 September 1939, TNA, KV2/1010/19a (file on John Heartfield). 22 Reports dating between April and June 1941, in TNA, KV2/3515. 23 See Charmian Brinson, The Strange Case of Dora Fabian and Mathilde Wurm: A Study of German Political Exiles in London during the 1930’s, Berne: Lang 1997, pp. 295ff. and passim. 24 Cross-reference on ‘Brockway, A. Fenner’, 21 June

in A matter of intelligence
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Death by a thousand cuts?

crisis’, BBC News, 2 September, available at: BBC (2012). ‘Draghi backs eurozone super-commissioner plan’, BBC News Business, 28 October, available at: Blair, T. (2004). Prime minister’s speech to Goldman Sachs on the economy, 22 March, available at: (accessed 1 October 2007). Braunthal, G. (2003). ‘The SPD, the welfare state, and Agenda 2010’, German Politics and Society, 21(4), 1–29. Callinicos, A. (2012). ‘The second coming of the radical left

in European social democracy during the global economic crisis