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. Sir Percy Fitzpatrick, author, politician and landowner, 5 May 1926 1 The theme of anglicisation is a familiar one throughout late eighteenth and early nineteenth century British imperial history. For example, after the conquest of Canada in 1760, successive British governments embarked upon a series of spasmodic and half-hearted policies designed to assimilate French Canadians into

in Unfit for heroes
Río Escondido

In earlier chapters we have explored and sought to problematize the role that Fernández’ films play in the project of cultural nationalism. In this chapter, through Fernández’ Río Escondido (Hidden River, 1947) we question another key element within the post-Revolution redefinition of Mexico – necessary consonance of Fernández’ films with conservative, Government ideology. Specifically, we explore

in Emilio Fernández

For many in the British Empire, the long struggle in Europe between 1914 and 1919 demonstrated the importance of imperial co-operation, unity and self-sufficiency, goals which were increasingly emphasised as the war intensified. The war presented the opportunity for governments to shed older, established conventions, proceed along new paths and experiment with fresh ideas

in Unfit for heroes

Despite the fact that soldiers in the past had proven inadequate and ineffective settlers the Canadian government launched a determined soldier settlement policy in late 1915. As two Canadian historians remark, a post-war soldier settlement scheme was inescapable. ‘It was unprecedented and therefore unthinkable that a war could end without some effort being made to settle soldiers

in Unfit for heroes
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Reconstruction and Soldier Settlement in the Empire Between the Wars

Research on soldier settlement has to be set within the wider history of emigration and immigration. This book examines two parallel but complementary themes: the settlement of British soldiers in the overseas or 'white' dominions, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, between 1915 and 1930. One must place soldier settlement within the larger context of imperial migration prior to 1914 in order to elicit the changes in attitude and policy which occurred after the armistice. The book discusses the changes to Anglo-dominion relations that were consequent upon the incorporation of British ex-service personnel into several overseas soldier settlement programmes, and unravels the responses of the dominion governments to such programmes. For instance, Canadians and Australians complained about the number of ex-imperials who arrived physically unfit and unable to undertake employment of any kind. The First World War made the British government to commit itself to a free passage scheme for its ex-service personnel between 1914 and 1922. The efforts of men such as L. S. Amery who attempted to establish a landed imperial yeomanry overseas is described. Anglicisation was revived in South Africa after the second Anglo-Boer War, and politicisation of the country's soldier settlement was an integral part of the larger debate on British immigration to South Africa. The Australian experience of resettling ex-servicemen on the land after World War I came at a great social and financial cost, and New Zealand's disappointing results demonstrated the nation's vulnerability to outside economic factors.

Photographic allegories of Victorian identity and empire

The Victorians admired Julia Margaret Cameron for her evocative photographic portraits of eminent men like Tennyson, Carlyle, and Darwin. But Cameron also made numerous photographs called ‘fancy subjects’ that depicted scenes from literature, personifications from classical mythology, and biblical parables from the Old and New Testament. Julia Margaret Cameron’s ‘fancy subjects’ is the first comprehensive study of these works, examining Cameron’s use of historical allegories and popular iconography to embed moral, intellectual, and political narratives in her photographs. A work of cultural history as much as art history, this book examines cartoons from Punch and line drawings from the Illustrated London News; cabinet photographs and Autotype prints; textiles and wall paper; book illustrations and engravings from period folios, all as a way to contextualize the allegorical subjects that Cameron represented, revealing connections between her ‘fancy subjects’ and popular debates about such topics as biblical interpretation, democratic government, national identity, and colonial expansion.

than colonies, but they were unquestionably growth points from which colonies could develop.4 A number of these castles, such as the formerly Danish Christiansborg (now known as Osu), were as magnificent as anything in Europe and, despite the baleful association with the slave trade, this one even became the seat of government and the Government House of the Gold Coast, later the residence of the first president, Kwame Nkrumah. Others included Cape Coast Castle and Dixcove Fort (now known as Fort Metal Cross). All bear the marks of the horrors of the slave trade

in The British Empire through buildings
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British visual culture between Chartism and the Great Exhibition

First performed on 21 May 1850, the satirical play Novelty Fair; or Hints for 1851 opened at almost exactly the middle of the 19th century. Its plot juxtaposes 1848, Chartism and republicanism, with 1851 and the coming Great Exhibition. Using Novelty Fair as inspiration, this book brings together Victorian people, things and places typically understood to be unrelated. By juxtaposing urban fairs and the Great Exhibition, daguerreotypes and ballads, satirical shilling books and government backed design reform, blackface performers and middle-class paterfamilias, a strikingly different picture of mid 19th-century culture emerges. Rather than a clean break between revolution and exhibition, class-consciousness and consumerism, popular and didactic, risqué and respectable, an examination of a wide range of sources reveals these themes to be interdependent and mutually defined. As a result, the years of Chartism and the Great Exhibition are shown to be far more contested than previously recognized, with bourgeois forms and strategies under stress in a period that has often been seen as a triumphant one for that class.

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Factory closures, material culture and loss

8 Conclusion: factory closures, material culture and loss The closure of the Government Printing Office The axe fell swiftly, as it often does in factory closures. On 27 June 1989 a letter was issued to all employees of the Gov, advising them that ‘the Government has decided to close the Ultimo factory … effective four weeks from today’.1 More than 700 workers were made redundant.2 For a brief period, in the mid-1980s, it had seemed as if the Gov might make the leap into a new, reformed era, characterised by equal employment opportunity, a retrained workforce

in Hot metal

government unmasked the ‘Zapatista leader’ at a press conference in Mexico City. During the press conference ‘the black-and-white photograph of a Milquestoatsy-looking young man with a beard and large, dark eyes’ was displayed in front of the reporters and photographers for observation.3 The photograph, according to the Mexican intelligence service, portrayed Rafael Sebastián Guillén Vicente, which was believed to be Subcomandante Marcos’s real identity. The governmental aide superimposed a slide of a balaclava on the old photograph attempting to establish the resemblance

in Photography and social movements