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8 Joanne Wilson and Lindsay Prior Neoliberal governmentality and public health policy in Ireland Introduction Since 1994 the Irish government has developed policies that set out its vision, priorities and direction for improving and sustaining the health of its people. This chapter critically appraises how these strategies have been configured to structure responsibility for health. Informed by the work of Rose and colleagues (Rose, 1999, 2000; Rose and Miller, 2010; Rose, O’Malley and Valverde, 2006), our analysis exposes a number of key characteristics of

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland

6 State power, governmentality, and the (mis)remembrance of Chinese medicine David Luesink Introduction: anatomo-medicine and the body of Yuan Shikai On June 6, 1916 at ten o’clock in the morning, President Yuan Shikai died in Beijing. Attending were his two western-style physicians, Drs. Wong Wen-tso and J. A. Bussière, but also present were the Chinese-style physicians of his many wives, concubines, children, and servants.1 Here the stage was set for a battle of two therapeutic forms over the body of the most powerful man in the very fragile Republic: between

in Historical epistemology and the making of modern Chinese medicine

10 Claire Edwards Assessment of Need as a technology of government in Ireland’s Disability Act 2005 Introduction Ireland has witnessed significant developments in the domain of disability policy and legislation in the past fifteen years. In a declared commitment to furthering the participation of people with disabilities in society, the government published a National Disability Strategy in 2004, the cornerstone of which was the passing of the Disability Act 2005. The Act, which promotes a number of positive action measures designed to safeguard disabled

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
A history of child development in Britain

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

A governmental analysis

Recent years have witnessed a burgeoning international literature which seeks to analyse the construction of health and health policy through an analytical lens drawn from post-Foucauldian ideas of governmentality. This book is the first to apply the theoretical lens of post-Foucauldian governmentality to an analysis of health problems, practices, and policy in Ireland. Drawing on empirical examples related to childhood, obesity, mental health, smoking, ageing and others, it explores how specific health issues have been constructed as problematic and in need of intervention in the Irish State. The book focuses specifically on how Jean Jacques Rousseau's critical social theory and normative political theory meet as a conception of childhood. The 'biosocial' apparatus has recently been reconfigured through a policy framework called Healthy Ireland, the purpose of which is to 'reduce health inequalities' by 'empowering people and communities'. Child fatness continues to be framed as a pervasive and urgent issue in Irish society. In a novel departure in Irish public health promotion, the Stop the Spread (STS) campaign, free measuring tapes were distributed throughout Ireland to encourage people to measure their waists. A number of key characteristics of neoliberal governmentality, including the shift towards a market-based model of health; the distribution of power across a range of agents and agencies; and the increasing individualisation of health are discussed. One of the defining features of the Irish health system is the Universal Health Insurance and the Disability Act 2005.

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Governmentality, health policy and the place of critical politics

12 Eluska Fernández and Claire Edwards Conclusion: governmentality, health policy and the place of critical politics Introduction Our starting point in gathering together this edited collection was a desire to explore the potential of governmentality-inspired ideas to develop a more nuanced and indeed critical understanding of the construction of healthbased policy in Ireland. Health policy analysis in the Irish state, like much social policy research in general, has often taken its starting point from positivist approaches in social science, echoing Osborne

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
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Nursing on the Crimean War battlefields

This book is a study of nursing in the five Crimean War armies. It sets military nursing into the wider transnational context, and studies the political and economic as well as the cultural and military factors which impacted the early development of modern nursing. In the Ottoman army there was no nursing corps as such, so doctors gave whatever nursing care their soldiers received. In the other four armies three systems of nursing developed: government-directed, doctor-directed, and religious sisterhood-directed. Government-directed nursing, the system in which Nightingale worked, was the most difficult to apply and placed the most constraints on the nursing superintendent. Religious sisters were highly successful, as were the trained French and Sardinian soldier nurses who reported to them, but the most innovative and productive military nursing developed in a doctor-directed nursing service, that of the Russians. There the director of nursing was a brilliant, internationally renowned Russian surgeon, Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov. As well as giving his nurses a wide scope of practice, he placed them in charge of hospital administration. Nursing under direct fire for most of the siege of Sevastopol, the Russian nurses met the challenges brilliantly. The book concludes that French and Sardinian soldier nurses, the Daughters of Charity, and Russian nurses provided the best nursing because they worked on the battlefields where they could save the most lives, while British nurses remained confined in base hospitals.

Introducing the governmentality turn

1 Claire Edwards and Eluska Fernández Analysing health and health policy: introducing the governmentality turn Introduction Recent years have witnessed a burgeoning international literature which seeks to analyse the construction of health and health policy through an analytical lens drawn from post-Foucauldian ideas of governmentality (Petersen and Lupton, 1996; Lupton, 1995, 2003; Joyce, 2001; Petersen and Bunton, 1997; Lovell, Kearns and Prince, 2014; Ferlie, McGivern and FitzGerald, 2012). From analyses of constructions of welfare citizens and patients

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
A governmental analysis

11 Ciara O’Dwyer Long-term care policy for older people in Ireland: a governmental analysis Introduction Over the last ten years, successive governments have introduced a range of policy reforms into the long-term care sector in Ireland with the aim of offering accessible, affordable services operating to high standards and focused on responding to the specific care needs of each individual (DoHC, 2005). This chapter seeks to analyse the reform process initiated in 2005, examining the policy tools used to improve care provision and their impact on older people

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
The case of Universal Health Insurance – by competition

insurance). In 2011, the newly formed Fine Gael / Labour Government, signalled its intention to develop Universal Health Insurance, which would require everyone to hold health insurance: This Government is the first in the history of the State that is committed to developing a universal, single-tier health service, which guarantees access to medical care based on need, not income. By reforming our model of delivering healthcare, so that more care is delivered in the community, and by reforming how we pay for healthcare through Universal Health Insurance, we can reduce the

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland