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produced and the soldiers who fought on both sides. Old heroes made new: Highlanders One result was that those regiments serving with both Havelock and Campbell received disproportionate press coverage. As chance would have it, several Highland regiments (or contingents of those regiments) served with both men during the first and second reliefs of Lucknao. 14 Moreover, it

in Martial races
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The inter-imperial uses of a racially gendered language

Soldiers in Scottish Highland regiments were no less constructed than their counterparts in the Indian Army. In fact, perhaps because they were British soldiers and thus more familiar to Britons, both officers and public commentators were more candid about the artificiality of ‘Highlandness’ within the regiments. By the late nineteenth century, it was common knowledge that the kilted Highland regiments

in Martial races
Life as a ‘martial race’ soldier

of martial races, it seems that many Sikhs entered military service not because they loved it, but because they had to. In the Highlands, the situation was both similar and different. In the end, soldiers who enlisted in the Highland regiments tended, like their Sikh counterparts, to do so out of necessity. The reasons, too, stemmed from the painful process of integrating the

in Martial races
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J.W.M. Hichberger

perfect unison, each depicted as brave, steadfast and cheerful. Most significantly, the regiment is a Highland one, the 93rd making an heroic stand at Balaclava. 8 Despite the numerical minority of Scottish regiments in the late Victorian army, the Scottish soldier received more pictorial coverage than any other. The Highland regiments, with their kilt and plaid uniforms, dominate. Their picturesque

in Images of the army
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strategies in terms of race and masculinity to keep politically suspect recruits out of the army. In Britain, however, most Britons were perfectly aware that the Highland regiments were not ethnically ‘pure’. In that context, then, the superlative qualities of Highland soldiers functioned as an inspirational tool, an image of ideal masculinity and racial superiority to which all potential recruits could

in Martial races

Highland regiments have been seen as resolving the conflicts of Scottish history. 46 There can also be little doubt that the image and reputation of Scots regiments in the British Empire had an effect upon the national self-image of Scotland, even if recruitment was so often a badge of economic problems and unemployment. Some Scots soldiers remained overseas as settlers, but the returning soldier

in The Scots in South Africa

imitation of the highly distinctive Highland military music – frequently with such success that the strength of the Indian pipe bands rivalled those in actual Highland regiments. Moreover, Highland dress was adopted on more than one occasion by Indian ‘martial race’ regiments. In one noted example, guest nights in the officers’ mess of the 2nd Gurkha regiment featured Gurkhas dressed in kilts, who entered

in Martial races
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of Service of the 42nd Royal Highland Regiment’, p. 23. 51 ‘Reception of the 42nd Highlanders’, p. 4. 52 ‘Letters from Welshmen Engaged in the Ashantee War’, p. 6. 53

in The Victorian soldier in Africa
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The Albany Museum, Grahamstown

either minerals or shells. 21 Annual Report, 1888. There was not to be another woman curator/director until Dr Webley was appointed in 1999. 22 The library opened in the jail at the top of the High Street. It was used by garrison soldiers; a 72nd Highland

in Museums and empire
Sir Hector Munro of Novar, 1760–1807

with the Gordons proved particularly helpful in assisting Hector’s initial involvement in India and his later domestic reintegration. The Dowager Duchess of Gordon, for instance, secured him a major’s commission in the family regiment, the 89th Highland Regiment, raised in 1759. 47 Rank in a regular line regiment was another common characteristic of Scottish military sojourners in the East. Half of the royal regiments sent to India from 1754 to 1784 were Scottish in origin. 48 A large proportion of Scots

in Emigrant homecomings