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The origins, characteristics and theoretical foundation of the nineteenth-century French realist, and naturalist tradition

emerged in the novels of Honoré de Balzac as a proselytising exploration of the problems arising from the replacement of the traditional culture of the ancien régime with one based on bourgeois capitalist values; 22 and, within this, both as a portrayal of the adverse impact of capitalism on a professional petit bourgeois society effectively disenfranchised by the haut bourgeois institutional power structures of Orleanism; 23

in Realist film theory and cinema

reference to fiction is made when Miralles reveals that his literary tastes lie with the nineteenth-century novel, particularly the work of Honoré de Balzac. Balzac’s work was the basis for the development of a strand of realist aesthetics in the latter part of the nineteenth century and, although Balzac stood on the right politically, he was praised highly by Marx and Engels. Marx had planned to write a study of Balzac’s works (Marx and Engels, 1984 : 439) and Engels stated that he had learned more from Balzac than ‘from all the professed historians, economists and

in The war that won't die
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Epstein at the crossroads

de tours de manivelle pour chaque surimpression, l’objectif, le diaphragme, mais improvisait au tournage’ [‘Jean did all of Le Tonnerre’s découpages, specifying the number of crankturns per superimpression, and the kind of lens and diaphragm, but he improvised during the shooting’] (Douek and Krauss, 1998). Wall-Romana_Epstein.indd 7 11/02/2013 17:10 8  jean epstein such as L’Auberge rouge (1923) after Honoré de Balzac, Mauprat (1926) after George Sand, La Glace à trois faces (1927) after Paul Morand and La Chute de la maison Usher (1928) after Edgar Allan Poe

in Jean Epstein
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Screening French literature

1 Introduction: screening French literature Homer B. Pettey and R. Barton Palmer French literature on screen relies upon investigations of the processes of artistic, cultural, and industry adaptations. The French film industry has always cherished the national heritage of classic literature and has adapted to the screen the works of Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, Honoré de Balzac, Gustave Flaubert, Émile Zola, and Marcel Proust. Hollywood has also been keen on adapting these authors’ seminal works, often adapting a French cinematic version of the novel. So, too

in French literature on screen

’Affiche (1924), and Le Double amour (1925) are melodramas. L’Auberge rouge (1923), Les Aventures de Robert Macaire (1925), and Mauprat (1926) adapt literary works of Honoré de Balzac for the first, Benjamin Antier, Armand Lacoste, and Alexandre Chapponier (under the title L’Auberge des Adrets, aventures véridique de Robert Macaire et son ami Bertrand, which Epstein likely discovered in the edition by Jules Lermina illustrated by Émile Cohl) for the second, and George Sand for the last. The literary adaptations are very much uneven. L’Auberge rouge skilfully melds through a

in Jean Epstein

–59). Despite the strong voice that comes through in his film-making, Cantet clearly has his place within this broader picture. The melodramatic turn in his films and those of his contemporaries is tempered but not negated by the drive to social realism. Realism and melodrama cannot be opposed as two mutually exclusive modes but can exist, as Peter Brooks shows when discussing canonical realist novelists like Honoré de Balzac or Henry James, in complex and productive tension (Brooks, 1976: 14–23). The same tension can of course be found in Italian neo-realism where André

in Laurent Cantet

or spirit rather than with its formal and narrative specificity. Visconti’s vision of the Recherche on film refashioned the novel as a vast portrait extending outward from Proust’s narrator toward the social milieu surrounding him. Even those who lauded this vision recognized it as closer to the panoramic vision Honoré de Balzac had sketched a century earlier in La Comédie humaine. Visconti’s efforts resulted in a phantom film whose presence extended to other Visconti films, of which Death in Venice (1971) was perhaps the most notable.17 Visconti’s lifelong

in French literature on screen
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blockbuster More (1969), Schroeder’s own exploration of drugged-out hippydom, Les Films du Losange reached cruising speed by the turn of the decade. This allowed the company to supply seed money for Rivette’s twelve-and-a-half-hour Out 1: Noli me tangere (1970), in which Rohmer plays a Honoré de Balzac specialist (he had already cameoed as a linguistics professor in Luc Moullet’s Brigitte et Brigitte of 1965), and to co

in Eric Rohmer

quintessentially Gallic discourses from nineteenth-century literature and visual art. Following these traditions, he depicts country-dwellers in paradoxical fashion, as both simple-minded brutes and as virtuous, hard-working role models. The former view, exemplified by Honoré de Balzac’s Les Paysans (1845) and Emile Zola’s La Terre (1887), applies particularly to Angèle’s father Clarius, who menaces passers

in Marcel Pagnol