The genealogy and diffusion of a ‘popular’ theatrical genre and experience, 1780–1830
subsequent extension had been entrusted to well-known professionals. Not long after this date,
many writers and journalists, first and foremost HonorédeBalzac, who gave
unrivalled descriptions of the boulevards in his novels and elsewhere, would
stress how such zones constituted a sort of crucible of modernity.20
The normative regime regulating theatrical life rendered the boulevards in
many respects a separate world from the rest of the theatre system, clearly counterposed to the theatres endowed with ‘privilege’, that is, a royal patent, located
in the heart of the
Economy, vol. 1, trans. Ben Fowkes
(New York: Random House, 1977), 126, n. 5.
48 Người Thứ Tám, Bóng Ma Trên Công Trường Đỏ, 39.
49 Thế Lử, Đòn hẹn [The Treacherous Appointment] (Ho Chi Minh City: Nhà
Xuất Bản Văn Nghệ, 2000), 34.
50 Quoted in Pierre A. Huard and Maurice Durand, Connaissance du Việtnam
(I) (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale và Hà Nội, École Française d’ExtrêmeOrient, 1954), 235–6.
51 HonorédeBalzac, Œuvres complètes (Complete Works), vol. 20 (Paris:
Michel Lévy Frères, 1869), 478.
52 Ibid., 461–2.
53 Ibid., 463.
54 On premodern forms of
The context of exile:
Quitter la France est, pour un français, une situation funèbre.
(HonorédeBalzac, Le Cousin Pons)1
An independent-minded people, with a strong cultural awareness and
attachment to region, if not always to nation, the French have generally
made unhappy exiles. It has been their misfortune that the many crises
punctuating French history have compelled them to take refuge
abroad, especially in Britain, a land that is so ‘alike’ France yet so
‘different’.2 In the
wheels. Red spots here and there must have been blood stains.) Here Flaubert draws on the existing repertoire of images that were ingrained in the cultural imagination. Gustave Flaubert, L’éducation sentimentale (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1942), p. 169.
29 HonorédeBalzac, Correspondance (1832), R. Pierrot (ed.), vol. 1 (Paris: Garnier, 1960–66), p. 380.
30 Papayanis, Horse-Drawn Cabs, p. 64.
31 Félix Nogaret, Réflexions d’un patriarche sur les voitures dites omnibus ! (Paris: Leclerc, 1828).
32 Nogaret’s slim volume was well known and
detail in Chapter 1.
15 See in particular Nicholas Papayanis, Paris before Haussmann (Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004) and David H. Pinkney, Decisive Years in France 1840–1847 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986). See also Hahn, Scenes of Parisian Modernity.
16 HonorédeBalzac, Ferragus , in Histoire des treize (Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1988), p. 79.
17 Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson, Paris as Revolution: Writing the Nineteenth-Century City (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1994), p. 35
See Grove, ‘Conservation and colonial
Cobban, The Social Interpretation of the
French Revolution , pp. 100–1. See also the allusions
made to illegal woodgathering in the 1830s by HonorédeBalzac
in Les paysans and in his letter to P. S. B. Gavault, quoted
in J. Scott, Weapons
, when Döblin was admitted into
the canon of world literature, taking his place alongside Joyce and Dos
Passos, it was not as a realist or naturalist but as a moderniser and
modernist.12 Hence in German literary circles Döblin is rarely compared
to his French literary forebears Gustave Flaubert, HonorédeBalzac and
Émile Zola. This is curious, all the more so since Döblin proclaimed once
in 1924 that the modern ‘European-American world’ was on the cusp of
a naturalist age.13
Among French literary historians, German naturalism is often regarded
as an imitation of
Fouinet, ‘ Un voyage en omnibus ’, p. 69. Italics in the original.
21 Lauster, Sketches of the Nineteenth Century , p. 9.
22 HonorédeBalzac, ‘ Histoire et physiologie des Boulevards de Paris. De la Madeleine à la Bastille ’, in Le Diable à Paris , 2 vols (Paris: Hetzel, 1845–46), vol. 2 (1846), p. 92.
23 Paris en omnibus. Guide familier dans le Paris de 1869 (Paris Ancien et Paris Nouveau) par un simple voyageur en omnibus, en chemin de ceinture et en bateau mouche indiquant les rencontres et les correspondances de ces divers modes de locomotion dans