egalitarian understanding of their faith that made ‘Islam the rallying cry for women's rights’ (Werbner 2000 : 320). Al-Qaida, however, had interests in deliberately blurring the lines between humanitarianism and paramilitary fundraising or even participation, and made Bosnia a node for recruiting young European Muslim men as militants (Kohlmann 2004 ) – indeed, some argue Bosnia ‘played the central role’ in catalysing British jihadism (Birt and Hamid 2014 : 171).
Racialised suspicion by the British state blurred these lines further. Before as well as
of Germany relatively more likely to be published. Slobodian's Comrades of Color came shortly after monographs on Mozambican students educated in East Germany (Müller 2014 ) and East and West German humanitarianism towards the Third World (Hong 2015 ). All combined microhistories of people of colour moving temporarily or permanently to state socialist countries with analysis of constructions of race that – however race-blind state socialist rhetoric and the international discourses of cultural diversity that had been shaped through UNESCO both were (Shilliam