Fabrice Weissman

the hostages with greater commercial and political value, mobilisation campaigns may serve to protect their lives and pressure those with the power to facilitate their release. British journalists have noted that the lack of information and public advocacy on behalf of aid workers David Haines and Allan Henning, who were abducted in Syria by the Islamic State (IS) in 2014, did not prevent their execution. On the contrary, the silence of their

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

-trust-mass-media-sinks-new-low.aspx (accessed 9 June 2018) . Tabatabai , A. ( 2018 ), ‘ A Brief History of Iranian Fake News: How Disinformation Campaigns Shaped the Islamic Republic ’, Foreign Affairs , 24 August , www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/middle-east/2018-08-24/brief-history-iranian-fake-news (accessed September 28, 2018) . Tandoc , E. , Lim , Z. W. and Ling , R. ( 2018 ), ‘ Defining “Fake News” ’, Digital Journalism , 6 : 2 , 137 – 53 . Taylor , J. ( 2000 ), ‘ Problems in Photojournalism: Realism, the Nature of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

the Islamic Development Bank, and (now in place) an endowment fund proposed by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. In the context of the long-standing financial deficit, although UNRWA has continued to provide ‘relief and works’, the actual services provided have been reduced and the groups of Palestinian refugees entitled to receive UNRWA services have constantly shrunk over time. With a current total registered refugee population of over five million people in the Middle East, ‘UNRWA’s mandate extends to groups or categories of vulnerable

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Elyse Semerdjian

This article discusses how Armenians have collected, displayed and exchanged the bones of their murdered ancestors in formal and informal ceremonies of remembrance in Dayr al-Zur, Syria – the final destination for hundreds of thousands of Armenians during the deportations of 1915. These pilgrimages – replete with overlapping secular and nationalist motifs – are a modern variant of historical pilgrimage practices; yet these bones are more than relics. Bone rituals, displays and vernacular memorials are enacted in spaces of memory that lie outside of official state memorials, making unmarked sites of atrocity more legible. Vernacular memorial practices are of particular interest as we consider new archives for the history of the Armenian Genocide. The rehabilitation of this historical site into public consciousness is particularly urgent, since the Armenian Genocide Memorial Museum and Martyr’s Church at the centre of the pilgrimage site were both destroyed by ISIS (Islamic State in Syria) in 2014.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Leslie C. Green

Shah and establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran there is no longer any country using the red lion and sun. 35 The Magen David Adom, Red Shield of David, used by Israel, was for many years not a recognised emblem, but some countries, e.g., Germany and the United States, considered it on equal

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Leslie C. Green

were laws of war as well as peace, and the Romans had learnt to put them into practice not less justly than bravely. . . . The Romans [says Cicero] refused to countenance a criminal attempt made on the life of even a foreign aggressor. 19 By the seventh century some of these principles had spread to the Islamic world

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Leslie C. Green

and they went to their master. Islam’s rules of war are based on mercy, clemency and compassion and draw their binding rules from divine Authority . . . [enjoining] the faithful, fighting in the path of God against those waging war against them never to transgress, let alone exceed, the limits of justice and equity and fall into the ways of tyranny and

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Leslie C. Green

Dinstein, ed., International Law at a Time of Perplexity , 1989, 273. 27 International Review of the Red Cross , January–February 1978. 28 The red lion and sun were formerly the emblem used by Iran, but since the Islamic revolution Iran uses the red

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Abstract only
Leslie C. Green

soldiers captured by Afghan mujahudin during the Afghanistan hostilities were compelled to adopt Islam to avoid torture or execution. 111 There were also reports that Iraqi prisoners captured by Iran were ‘brainwashed’ into becoming ‘fanatical supporters of Ayatollah Khomaini’. 112 The gathering of information either in the area in which adverse armies are confronting each

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Leslie C. Green

mujahudin in Afghanistan during the conflict leading to the Soviet expulsion and Taliban assumption of power, a number of them were induced to convert to Islam in order to avoid torture or execution. 173 In an attempt to assist personnel who may be captured and subjected to pressure directed to their subornation some countries have introduced special courses directed to that end

in The contemporary law of armed conflict