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Ayla Göl

3 Modernity, nationalism and Islamic identity Having suggested a new approach to understanding the foreign policies of transitional states by using FPA and historical sociology, this chapter shows why the study of nationalism is the third pillar that completes the new theoretical framework. Chapter 1 argued that the foreign policies of transitional states reflect their preoccupation with domestic politics – which indicates nation-­state building as an integral part of modernity. Chapter 2 then explained what the transition to modernity meant in Turkish politics

in Turkey facing east
Fabrice Weissman

the hostages with greater commercial and political value, mobilisation campaigns may serve to protect their lives and pressure those with the power to facilitate their release. British journalists have noted that the lack of information and public advocacy on behalf of aid workers David Haines and Allan Henning, who were abducted in Syria by the Islamic State (IS) in 2014, did not prevent their execution. On the contrary, the silence of their

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

-trust-mass-media-sinks-new-low.aspx (accessed 9 June 2018) . Tabatabai , A. ( 2018 ), ‘ A Brief History of Iranian Fake News: How Disinformation Campaigns Shaped the Islamic Republic ’, Foreign Affairs , 24 August , www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/middle-east/2018-08-24/brief-history-iranian-fake-news (accessed September 28, 2018) . Tandoc , E. , Lim , Z. W. and Ling , R. ( 2018 ), ‘ Defining “Fake News” ’, Digital Journalism , 6 : 2 , 137 – 53 . Taylor , J. ( 2000 ), ‘ Problems in Photojournalism: Realism, the Nature of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

the Islamic Development Bank, and (now in place) an endowment fund proposed by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. In the context of the long-standing financial deficit, although UNRWA has continued to provide ‘relief and works’, the actual services provided have been reduced and the groups of Palestinian refugees entitled to receive UNRWA services have constantly shrunk over time. With a current total registered refugee population of over five million people in the Middle East, ‘UNRWA’s mandate extends to groups or categories of vulnerable

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Islam, modernity and foreign policy
Author: Ayla Göl

Turkish facing east is about the importance of Turkey’s relations with its Eastern neighbours – Azerbaijan, Armenia and the Soviet Union - during the emergence of the modern Turkish nation-state from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire. The originality of Turkey facing east lies in part in its theoretically informed analysis of history exploring the causal links between the construction of a modern nation-state, secular identity and nationalised foreign policy during the transition from an Islamic Empire to a modern state. The role of the Islamic legacy, territorial unity and national identity construction are re-examined in order to understand the complexity of a long historical and sociological process. Hence, the principal strength of this book is that not only it combines historical and theoretical arguments in order to provide a better understanding of the foreign relations of a Muslim country from a critical and interdisciplinary perspective but also applies the new approach to the analysis of Turkish foreign policy towards the South Caucasus between 1918 and 1921. Turkey facing east stands out with its original interdisciplinary approach to the critical analysis of Turkish transition and foreign policy making that offers perspectives on the extant possibilities for the particular transitional states resulting from the Arab spring uprisings.

John F. Kerry

had recently returned from an extensive tour of the Middle East and South Asia, which had taken in both Iraq and Afghanistan. He focused upon two outstanding issues, each central to an understanding of security; namely, America’s relations with the Islamic world, so often the fount of mutual mistrust and misunderstanding, and the weapons of mass destruction which had threatened the future of humankind since their first appearance in 1945. What he had to say speaks for itself, an eloquent plea in the first instance for mutual tolerance and understanding between the

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Raymond Hinnebusch

–55). Historically, identification with the territorial state has been weak, with popular identify tending to focus on the sub-state unit – the city, the tribe, the religious sect – or on the larger Islamic umma (Weulersse 1946: 79–83). This is because states, the product of outside conquerors, imported slave-soldiers without local roots, or religio-tribal movements, typically disintegrated after a few generations and when a new wave of state-building came along the states’ boundaries were often radically different. Moreover, in an arid environment of trading cities and nomadic

in The international politics of the Middle East
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

Turkish nationalism and Islam Turkey professes to be a secular state, the only such country in the Middle East and the only secular Muslim country in the world. Turkey is a living example, though not without difficulties, of a country whose population is predominantly Muslim but which is not a Muslim state. Ayse Kadioglu supplies a brief but painful enough reminder of the reforms, better called trauma, that the country and its population had experienced, which helps when evaluating the interaction between state and

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Ayla Göl

most successful examples of modernisation theory;5 there has been a recent resurgence of this theory since 9/11 in order to understand the socio-­political changes in Muslim societies; and there is a parallel reasoning between modernisation theory and the idea of modernity.6 In general, since Marx and Weber many orthodox political philosophers tend to assume tacitly that ‘modern institutions and technical rationality’ are essentially incompatible with other cultures since they arose in the West first.7 Hence, Islam as a belief system is commonly identified as

in Turkey facing east
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

tended to dominate the region on behalf of a relatively united ‘core’. The first of these hegemons, Great Britain, came near to imposing an imperial order in the Middle East (Brown 1984: 112–39). After the interval of bi-polarity, in which the Arab world attained considerable autonomy, the sole American hegemon has returned to its attempt to establish a Pax Americana in the region. The result, according to Barry Buzan (1991), is that the Islamic Middle East is the only classical civilisation that has not managed to re-establish itself as a significant world actor

in The international politics of the Middle East