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Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher

splendid liturgy of the Visigothic Church. This cultural achievement was shattered and dispersed by the Islamic conquest of Spain in the early years of the eighth century. ‘Islamic conquest’ is shorthand. The conquerors were led by Arab Muslims, but their rank-and-file were Berbers from north-west Africa, recently subdued with great difficulty by the Arabs and as yet, little touched by Islamic

in The world of El Cid
Graham A. Loud

original as was once thought, drawing in particular upon a ‘Book of Curiosities’ written about a century earlier, as well as upon the tenth-century geographer Ibn-Hawqal. 1 al-Idrîsî’s work was subsequently praised, and used, by a number of late medieval Arabic writers, notably the Damascus prince Abû’l-Fidâ (d.1331) and perhaps the most important Islamic historian of the

in Roger II and the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily
Abstract only
John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

Aufsätze , I, 364–416); D. Iogna-Prat, Order and Exclusion: Cluny and the Church Face Heresy, Judaism and Islam (1000–1150) , trans. G. R. Edwards (Ithaca, 2002); I. Bueno, Defining Heresy. Inquisition, Theology, and Papal Policy in the Time of Jacques Fournier (Leiden, 2015). For an interesting analysis of the visual ‘genre’, see A. Trivellone, L’hérétique imaginé: Hétérodoxie et iconographie dans l’Occident médiéval, de l’époque carolingienne à l’inquisition (Turnhout, 2009). 10 See

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
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Graham A. Loud

northern Italy. They were, however, like the northerners Latin Christians, loyal to the Church of Rome. On the island of Sicily, conquered by the Arabs in the ninth century, much of the population had in the next two centuries converted to Islam, but there remained a substantial Christian minority, especially in the north-east of the island, which was for the most part graecophone, who observed the rites of

in Roger II and the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily
Graham A. Loud

). 6 For Conrad of Sabina, see Romuald , note 40, above. 7 Gattula, Accessiones , 245–6 (March 1132), although the terms of the document are slightly different from those given here. The tarì was a gold coin of Islamic origin, equivalent to a quarter dinar, minted at Amalfi from

in Roger II and the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily
Andrew Brown and Graeme Small

Religion civique médiévale et moderne (Chrétienté et Islam): Actes du colloque de Nanterre (21–23 juin 1993 )( École française de Rome , 213), pp. 1–12; G. Dickson, ‘The 115 cults of saints in later medieval and Renaissance Perugia: a demographic overview of a civic pantheon,’ in

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530
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Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest

The Visigothic monarchy of Spain which flourished in the seventh and eighth centuries was the most sophisticated of the misleadingly so-called barbarian successor states which replaced the Roman Empire in western Europe. It was sophisticated in its grasp of the institutional inheritance from Rome, in its nurturing of the wealth of the rich provinces of the Iberian peninsula and in its encouragement of a lively Christian literary and artistic culture. This cultural achievement was shattered and dispersed by the Islamic conquest of Spain in the early years of the eighth century. The book focuses on four of the principal narrative sources for the history of the Spanish kingdom of León-Castile during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. They are Historia Silense, Chronicon Regum Legionensium by Bishop Pelayo of Oviedo, Historia Roderici and Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris. The first three chronicles focus primarily upon the activities of the kings of León-Castile as leaders of the Reconquest of Spain from the forces of Islam, and especially upon Fernando I, his son Alfonso VI and the latter's grandson Alfonso VII. The fourth chronicle is a biography of the hero Rodrigo Díaz, better remembered as El Cid, and is the main source of information about his extraordinary career as a mercenary soldier who fought for Christian and Muslim alike.

Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher

, the main city of the Spanish Levante. For the last five years of his life Rodrigo defended his vulnerable principality. He died in Valencia, peacefully, in July 1099. 1 Rodrigo’s truly remarkable career was made possible by the distinctive circumstances of his age: the instability of the Taifa principalities; the acceptability of tribute-taking as the primary mode of Christian–Islamic relationship

in The world of El Cid
Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton and Yuri Stoyanov

radical way. This new heresy came into being in the second half of the seventh century, which was a time of great change throughout the Near East. The Arab followers of the prophet Muhammad in the century following his death in 632 absorbed the Persian Empire, conquered the Byzantine provinces on the southern shores of the Mediterranean from Cilicia to Mauretania, and established a new Islamic

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450
Rosemary Horrox

existing habitats and into closer proximity to human settlement, allowing the disease to become endemic among the local rat population and facilitating the movement of fleas to human hosts. This is not an entirely speculative scenario. Islamic authors believed that the plague in the east was preceded by famine, floods and earthquakes, and the highly coloured stories of natural

in The Black Death