the IsleofMan, the Iberian, Italian and Scandinavian peninsulas, Iceland and Greece.
g Taxpayers of this nationality as a percentage of those with known nationality.
h Details for Derbyshire and Oxfordshire are known only from the enrolled accounts, which do not specify nationalities.
The numbers, distribution and economic status of the Irish within England have attracted a certain amount of discussion from historians. Kevin Down and Art Cosgrove have noted the concerns expressed in the Irish Parliament during the later Middle Ages about the effects of
followed (so, ‘Briouze’).
The period 1172 to 1241 witnessed a formalisation of Irish spelling from
Middle to Classical Irish. Assuming that it is preferable to be somewhat
traditional rather than anachronistic, Irish names have been rendered in
Middle Irish. Scottish names are in their generally recognised (largely
anglicised) forms, while Manxmen and Islesmen have been given their
Norse names (following the practice in A New History of the IsleofMan)45
with their Gaelic forms in parentheses where pertinent.
After a period of myriad hyphenated alternatives, the current
those whose children he had just threatened.115 Nevertheless, John de
Courcy remained defiant.
Hugh de Lacy once again marched against Ulster, and this time took
Courcy prisoner.116 The annals of Loch Cé claim that he was released after
having taken vows to go to Jerusalem, but if this is true then he reneged on
his promise and instead made his way to Tír Eógain, though the Manx
chronicle claims that he fled to his brother-in-law on the IsleofMan.117
Another safe-conduct was issued on 21 October 1204, to no avail.118 The
situation is confused, but John de Courcy
land in the 1280s. After 1295, however, Welsh-born persons were excluded from the new system of English law operating in the boroughs of the principality. 15 The status of people born on the IsleofMan, meanwhile, was difficult even for contemporaries to fathom. With the transfer from Scottish to English control in the fourteenth century, the island was ruled by a series of English magnates who enjoyed virtual autonomy as ‘kings of Man’. Their subjects were answerable directly to them, and only indirectly to the crown of England. 16
expansively, and the 1442 subsidy grant explicitly exempted all Irish people – implicitly both English and Gaelic – from the tax. 18 People from the IsleofMan seem to have been treated in the same way, since the label ‘Manx’ was not used by the assessors after the first collection of the alien subsidy. If, as has been suggested, there was an element of spite involved in the initial inclusion of the Irish (and Manx) in the 1440 tax, it must have dissipated rapidly in the face of the difficulties and opposition encountered. 19
The decision to tax immigrants from the
(and Hugh remained so thereafter, even when driven to
Scotland). They had left the question of their loyalty open for too long for
John to tolerate while he had the power to do otherwise. An example had
to be made, and it was only their timely escape that prevented the Lacy
brothers from feeling the full force of the famous Angevin temper.
Nothing is known of Walter’s route from Ireland, but the anonymous
of Béthune records that Hugh de Lacy, Matilda de St Valery (Briouze’s
wife) and William de Briouze the younger fled to the IsleofMan, where
they rested for four
’ (Hudson, 1999 : 40). Within this were three particular routes: connecting the southwest of England with the southeast of Ireland; the northwest of England, Wales and the IsleofMan with the east of Ireland; and a north–south route running past Ireland's west coast and communicating between Galicia in the south and Iceland and the Baltic to the north. These same routes were in operation by the late Middle Ages and are the subject of much of the following discussion.
Colfer ( 2013 ) has stated that the tower house was a creation of the manorial
of Chester, created a powerful affinity among the
Cheshire gentry. The Cheshire connection showed conspicuous loyalty to
Richard. A number of Cheshire gentry made brilliant careers in
Richard’s service, including Sir John Stanley, whose descendants
entered the peerage and who himself became king: albeit of the IsleofMan. Sir John was granted the lordship of Man by Henry IV, and the
relationships with European and continental neighbours such as Scandinavia, Ireland, the IsleofMan and of course with England. The Norman conquest of England in 1066 had had little immediate effect upon Wales, but Mynydd Carn had fundamentally changed the balance of power in Wales and this resulted in a visit by William I to St David’s in 1081. 6 The Norman assault on Wales began in earnest only after the accession of William Rufus in 1087, and several Welsh kingdoms disappeared as the Normans began a process of settlement and annexation of Welsh territory. 7 Nest
It is interesting that in areas in the British Isles where royal control
was weak or non-existent the practice of sealing documents with personal seals was a much later development. For example, the IsleofMan
retained political independence of both the Normans and Angevins, yet
the kings of Man were close culturally to the Norman and Angevin
court. Whilst the kings of Man sealed documents in the mid-twelfth
century, there is little evidence that noblewomen with Manx connections were sealing documents. Yet the ship symbol of the kings
of Man was used on the